The role of NOS in the impairment of spatial memory and damaged neurons in rats injected with amyloid beta 25-35 into the temporal cortex.
ABSTRACT The Aβ(25-35) fraction mimics the toxic effects of the complete peptide Aβ(1-42) because this decapeptide is able to cause memory impairment and neurodegenerative events. Recent evidence has shown that the injection of Aβ(25-35) into the temporal cortex (TCx) of the rat increases the nitric oxide (NO) pathways with several consequences, such as neuronal loss in rats. Our aim was to investigate the effects of each NOS isoform by the prior injection of NOS inhibitors before the injection of the Aβ(25-35). One month after the treatment, the animals were tested for their spatial memory in the radial maze. The hippocampus (Hp) and TCx were assessed for NO production, nitration of proteins (3-NT), astrocytosis (GFAP), and neuronal loss. Our findings show a significant impairment in the memory caused by Aβ25-35 injection. In contrast NOS inhibitors plus Aβ25-35 cause a protection yielding a high performance in the memory test and reduction of cell damage in the TCx and the Hp. Particularly, iNOS is the major source of NO and related to the inflammatory response leading to the memory deficits. The inhibition of iNOS is an important target for neuronal protection against the toxicity of the Aβ25-35 over the long term.
- European Neuropsychopharmacology - EUR NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOL. 01/2011; 21.
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ABSTRACT: GSK3 has diverse functions, including an important role in brain pathology. In this paper, we address the primary functions of GSK3 in development and neuroplasticity, which appear to be interrelated and to mediate age-associated neurological diseases. Specifically, GSK3 plays a pivotal role in controlling neuronal progenitor proliferation and establishment of neuronal polarity during development, and the upstream and downstream signals modulating neuronal GSK3 function affect cytoskeletal reorganization and neuroplasticity throughout the lifespan. Modulation of GSK3 in brain areas subserving cognitive function has become a major focus for treating neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. As a crucial node that mediates a variety of neuronal processes, GSK3 is proposed to be a therapeutic target for restoration of synaptic functioning and cognition, particularly in Alzheimer's disease.International journal of Alzheimer's disease. 01/2011; 2011:189728.
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer disease (AD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disease characterized by the formation of β-amyloid (Aβ)-containing senile plaque. The disease could be induced by the administration of Aβ peptide, which was also known to upregulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and stimulate neuronal apoptosis. The present study is aimed to elucidate the cellular effect of resveratrol, a natural phytoestrogen with neuroprotective activities, on Aβ-induced hippocampal neuron loss and memory impairment. On adult Sprague-Dawley rats, we found the injection of Aβ could result in a significant impairment in spatial memory, a marked increase in the cellular level of iNOS and lipid peroxidation, and an apparent decrease in the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). By combining the treatment with Aβ, resveratrol was able to confer a significant improvement in spatial memory, and protect animals from Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. These neurological protection effects of resveratrol were associated with a reduction in the cellular levels of iNOS and lipid peroxidation and an increase in the production of HO-1. Moreover, the similar neurological and cellular response were also observed when Aβ treatment was combined with the administration of a NOS inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME). These findings strongly implicate that iNOS is involved in the Aβ-induced lipid peroxidation and HO-1 downregulation, and resveratrol protects animals from Aβ-induced neurotoxicity by suppressing iNOS production.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(12):e29102. · 3.73 Impact Factor