Necrolytic acral erythema.
ABSTRACT Necrolytic acral erythema (NAE) is a recently recognized dermatosis almost exclusively associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and closely related to a group of necrolytic erythemas and metabolic syndromes. NAE is characterized by pruritic, symmetric, well-demarcated, hyperkeratotic, erythematous-to-violaceous, lichenified plaques with a rim of dusky erythema on the dorsal aspects of the feet and extending to the toes. Based on morphology and histopathologic features, NAE can be difficult to distinguish from certain groups of necrolytic erythemas, which include necrolytic migratory erythema, acrodermatitis enteropathica, biotin deficiency, niacin deficiency, and essential fatty acid deficiencies. The condition is particularly important for clinicians to diagnose because the majority of the patients present to dermatologists without a known history of HCV infection. Thus, NAE can serve as a cutaneous marker for underlying HCV infection. Resolution of NAE can be achieved by treatment of the underlying HCV infection and the use of oral zinc therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are the prototypic complications of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in the liver. However, hepatitis C virus also affects a variety of other organs that may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C infection include a multitude of disease processes affecting the small vessels, skin, kidneys, salivary gland, eyes, thyroid, and immunologic system. The majority of these conditions are thought to be immune mediated. The most documented of these entities is mixed cryoglobulinemia. Morphologically, immune complex depositions can be identified in small vessels and glomerular capillary walls, leading to leukoclastic vasculitis in the skin and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in the kidney. Other HCV-associated entities include porphyria cutanea tarda, lichen planus, necrolytic acral erythema, membranous glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, insulin resistance, sialadenitis, sicca syndrome, and autoimmune thyroiditis. This paper highlights the histomorphologic features of these processes, which are typically characterized by chronic inflammation, immune complex deposition, and immunoproliferative disease in the affected organ.Clinical and Developmental Immunology 01/2012; 2012:740138. · 3.06 Impact Factor
Article: Zinc and liver disease.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Zinc is an essential trace element required for normal cell growth, development, and differentiation. It is involved in DNA synthesis, RNA transcription, and cell division and activation. It is a critical component in many zinc protein/enzymes, including critical zinc transcription factors. Zinc deficiency/altered metabolism is observed in many types of liver disease, including alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and viral liver disease. Some of the mechanisms for zinc deficiency/altered metabolism include decreased dietary intake, increased urinary excretion, activation of certain zinc transporters, and induction of hepatic metallothionein. Zinc deficiency may manifest itself in many ways in liver disease, including skin lesions, poor wound healing/liver regeneration, altered mental status, or altered immune function. Zinc supplementation has been documented to block/attenuate experimental ALD through multiple processes, including stabilization of gut-barrier function, decreasing endotoxemia, decreasing proinflammatory cytokine production, decreasing oxidative stress, and attenuating apoptotic hepatocyte death. Clinical trials in human liver disease are limited in size and quality, but it is clear that zinc supplementation reverses clinical signs of zinc deficiency in patients with liver disease. Some studies suggest improvement in liver function in both ALD and hepatitis C following zinc supplementation, and 1 study suggested improved fibrosis markers in hepatitis C patients. The dose of zinc used for treatment of liver disease is usually 50 mg of elemental zinc taken with a meal to decrease the potential side effect of nausea.Nutrition in Clinical Practice 02/2012; 27(1):8-20. · 1.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photoprotecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts), inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea), pigmentary disorders (melasma), and neoplasias (basal cell carcinoma). Although the role of oral zinc is well-established in human zinc deficiency syndromes including acrodermatitis enteropathica, it is only in recent years that importance of zinc as a micronutrient essential for infant growth and development has been recognized. The paper reviews various dermatological uses of zinc.Dermatology Research and Practice 07/2014; 2014.