Machine-Learning-Based Coadaptive Calibration for Brain-Computer Interfaces.
ABSTRACT Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) allow users to control a computer application by brain activity as acquired (e.g., by EEG). In our classic machine learning approach to BCIs, the participants undertake a calibration measurement without feedback to acquire data to train the BCI system. After the training, the user can control a BCI and improve the operation through some type of feedback. However, not all BCI users are able to perform sufficiently well during feedback operation. In fact, a nonnegligible portion of participants (estimated 15%--30%) cannot control the system (a BCI illiteracy problem, generic to all motor-imagery-based BCIs). We hypothesize that one main difficulty for a BCI user is the transition from offline calibration to online feedback. In this work, we therefore investigate adaptive machine learning methods to eliminate offline calibration and analyze the performance of 11 volunteers in a BCI based on the modulation of sensorimotor rhythms. We present an adaptation scheme that individually guides the user initially starting from a subject-independent classifier operating on simple features to a subject-optimized state-of-the-art classifier within one session while the user interacts continuously. These initial runs use supervised techniques for robust coadaptive learning of user and machine. Subsequent runs use unsupervised adaptation to track the features' drift during the session and provide an unbiased measure of BCI performance. Using this approach, without any offline calibration measurement, six users, including one novice, obtained good performance after 3 to 6 minutes of adaptation. More important, this novel guided learning also allows participants with BCI illiteracy to gain significant control with the BCI in less than 60 minutes. In addition, one volunteer without sensorimotor idle rhythm peak at the beginning of the BCI experiment developed it during the course of the session and used voluntary modulation of its amplitude to control the feedback application.
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ABSTRACT: In a closed-loop brain-computer interface (BCI), adaptive decoders are used to learn parameters suited to decoding the user’s neural response. Feedback to the user provides information which permits the neural tuning to also adapt. We present an approach to model this process of co-adaptation between the encoding model of the neural signal and the decoding algorithm as a multi-agent formulation of the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control problem. In simulation we characterize how decoding performance improves as the neural encoding and adaptive decoder optimize, qualitatively resembling experimentally demonstrated closed-loop improvement. We then propose a novel, modified decoder update rule which is aware of the fact that the encoder is also changing and show it can improve simulated co-adaptation dynamics. Our modeling approach offers promise for gaining insights into co-adaptation as well as improving user learning of BCI control in practical settings.Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS); 12/2013
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ABSTRACT: The combination of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technology, allowing online monitoring and decoding of brain activity, with virtual and mixed reality (MR) systems may help to shape and guide implicit and explicit learning using ecological scenarios. Real-time information of ongoing brain states acquired through BCI might be exploited for controlling data presentation in virtual environments. Brain states discrimination during mixed reality experience is thus critical for adapting specific data features to contingent brain activity. In this study we recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) data while participants experienced MR scenarios implemented through the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM). The XIM is a novel framework modeling the integration of a sensing system that evaluates and measures physiological and psychological states with a number of actuators and effectors that coherently reacts to the user's actions. We then assessed continuous EEG-based discrimination of spatial navigation, reading and calculation performed in MR, using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. Dynamic single trial classification showed high accuracy of LDA and SVM classifiers in detecting multiple brain states as well as in differentiating between high and low mental workload, using a 5 s time-window shifting every 200 ms. Our results indicate overall better performance of LDA with respect to SVM and suggest applicability of our approach in a BCI-controlled MR scenario. Ultimately, successful prediction of brain states might be used to drive adaptation of data representation in order to boost information processing in MR.Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 11/2014; 8(415). · 4.16 Impact Factor