Identification of a FUS splicing mutation in a large family with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
ABSTRACT Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe neurodegenerative disease characterized by the degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. Genetic studies have led, thus far, to the identification of 12 loci and 9 genes for familial ALS (FALS). Although the distribution and impact of superoxide dismutase 1 mutations has been extensively examined for over a decade, the recently identified FALS-associated FUS gene has been less studied. Therefore, we set out to screen our collection of FALS cases for FUS mutations. All 15 exons of FUS were amplified and sequenced in 154 unrelated FALS cases and 475 ethnically matched healthy individuals. One substitution located in the acceptor splice site of intron 14 was identified in all affected members of a large family, causing the skipping of the last 13 amino acids of the protein and the translation of 7 novel amino acids, resulting from the new translation of a part of the 3' untranslated region. Our study identified a new splicing mutation in the highly conserved C-terminal of the FUS protein. Thus far most FUS mutations are missenses, and our findings, combined with those of others, confirm the importance of the C-terminal portion of the protein, adding additional support for FUS mutations having a critical role in ALS.
- SourceAvailable from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mutations in the gene encoding fused in sarcoma (FUS) were recently identified as a novel cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), emphasizing the genetic heterogeneity of ALS. We sequenced the genes encoding superoxide dismutase (SOD1), TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TARDBP) and FUS in 99 sporadic and 17 familial ALS patients ascertained at Mayo Clinic. We identified two novel mutations in FUS in two out of 99 (2.0%) sporadic ALS patients and established the de novo occurrence of one FUS mutation. In familial patients, we identified three (17.6%) SOD1 mutations, while FUS and TARDBP mutations were excluded. The de novo FUS mutation (g.10747A>G; IVS13-2A>G) affects the splice-acceptor site of FUS intron 13 and was shown to induce skipping of FUS exon 14 leading to the C-terminal truncation of FUS (p.G466VfsX14). Subcellular localization studies showed a dramatic increase in the cytoplasmic localization of FUS and a reduction of normal nuclear expression in cells transfected with truncated compared to wild-type FUS. We further identified a novel in-frame insertion/deletion mutation in FUS exon 12 (p.S402_P411delinsGGGG) which is predicted to expand a conserved poly-glycine motif. Our findings extend the mutation spectrum in FUS leading to ALS and describe the first de novo mutation in FUS.Human Mutation 03/2010; 31(5):E1377-89. · 5.21 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Two new mutations in the gene encoding cytoplasmic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) have been discovered in patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). These mutations result in the truncation of most of the polypeptide segment encoded by exon 5, one by the formation of a stop codon in codon 126 (L126Z) and the other by inducing alternative splicing in the mRNA (splicing junction mutation). These two mutants of SOD1 result in a FALS phenotype similar to that observed in patients with missense mutations in the SOD1 gene, establishing that exon 5 is not required for the novel toxic functions of mutant SOD1 associated with ALS. These mutant enzymes are present at very low levels in FALS patients, suggesting elevated toxicity compared to mutant enzymes with single site substitutions. This increased toxicity likely arises from the extreme structural and functional changes in the active site channel, β-barrel fold, and dimer interface observed in the mutant enzymes, including the loss of native dismutase activity. In particular, the truncation of the polypeptide chain dramatically opens the active site channel, resulting in a marked increase in the accessibility and flexibility of the metal ions and side chain ligands of the enzyme active site. These structural changes are proposed to cause a decrease in substrate specificity and an increase in the catalysis of harmful chemical reactions such as peroxidation.Neurogenetics 04/1997; 1(1):65-71. · 3.58 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disorder characterized pathologically by ubiquitinated TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) inclusions. The function of TDP-43 in the nervous system is uncertain, and a mechanistic role in neurodegeneration remains speculative. We identified neighboring mutations in a highly conserved region of TARDBP in sporadic and familial ALS cases. TARDBPM337V segregated with disease within one kindred and a genome-wide scan confirmed that linkage was restricted to chromosome 1p36, which contains the TARDBP locus. Mutant forms of TDP-43 fragmented in vitro more readily than wild type and, in vivo, caused neural apoptosis and developmental delay in the chick embryo. Our evidence suggests a pathophysiological link between TDP-43 and ALS.Science 04/2008; 319(5870):1668-72. · 31.20 Impact Factor