Association of aging and survival in a large HIV-infected cohort on antiretroviral therapy
ABSTRACT To examine if there is a significant difference in survival between elderly (>50 years) and nonelderly adult patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in Uganda between 2004 and 2010.
Prospective observational study.
Patients 18-49 years of age (nonelderly) and 50 years of age and older enrolled in the AIDS Support Organization Uganda HIV/AIDS national programme were assessed for time to all-cause mortality. We applied a Weibull multivariable regression.
Among the 22 087 patients eligible for analyses, 19 657 (89.0%) were aged between 18 and 49 years and 2430 (11.0%) were aged 50 years or older. These populations differed in terms of the distributions of sex, baseline CD4 cell count and death. The age group 40-44 displayed the lowest crude mortality rate [31.4 deaths per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval (CI) 28.1, 34.7) and the age group 60-64 displayed the highest crude mortality rate (58.9 deaths per 1000 person-years; 95% CI 42.2, 75.5). Kaplan-Meier survival estimates indicated that nonelderly patients had better survival than elderly patients (P < 0.001). Adjusted Weibull analysis indicated that elderly age status was importantly associated (adjusted hazard ratio 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.42) with mortality, when controlling for sex, baseline CD4 cell count and year of therapy initiation.
As antiretroviral treatment cohorts mature, the proportion of patients who are elderly will inevitably increase. Elderly patients may require focused clinical care that extends beyond HIV treatment.
- SourceAvailable from: Paul Kowal
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- "the survival gains tend to be smaller than at younger ages (Bakanda et al., 2011; Negin et al., 2011). Longer survival implies that HIV infection will be increasingly common among older people, as was shown in a projection for a rural population in South Africa (Hontelez et al., 2011). "
ABSTRACT: Abstract Older caregivers have major caregiving responsibilities in countries severely affected by the HIV epidemic, but little is known about their own health and well-being. We conducted this study to assess the association of caregiving responsibilities and self-perceived burden with caregivers' health, HIV status, background characteristics and care-receiving among older people in South Western Uganda. Men and women aged 50 years and older were recruited from existing cohort studies and clinic registers and interviewed at home. Health was measured through a composite score of health in eight domains, anthropometry and handgrip strength. Summary measures of caregiving responsibilities and self-reported burden were used to analyse the main associations. There were 510 participants, including 198 living with HIV. Four fifths of women and 66% of men were caregivers. Older respondents with no care responsibility had poorer scores on all health indicators (self-reported health score, body mass index and grip strength). Having a caregiving responsibility was not associated with poorer health status or quality of life. Notably, HIV-infected people, whether on antiretroviral treatment (ART) or not, had similar caregiving responsibilities and health status as others. The self-reported burden associated with caregiving was significantly associated with a poorer health score. One third of female caregivers were the single adult in the household with larger caregiving responsibilities. Many of these women are in the poorest wealth quartile of the households in the study and are therefore more likely to need assistance. Physical and financial supports were received by 70% and 63%, respectively. Those with larger caregiving responsibilities more frequently received support. Caregiving responsibilities were associated with better health status, greater satisfaction and quality of life. Older HIV-infected people, whether on ART or not, had similar caregiving responsibilities and self-reported health status as other older people.AIDS Care 02/2013; 25(11). DOI:10.1080/09540121.2013.765936 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess whether treatment outcomes vary with age for adults receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a large rural HIV treatment cohort. Retrospective cohort analysis using data from a public HIV Treatment & Care Programme. Adults initiating ART 1(st) August 2004-31(st) October 2009 were stratified by age at initiation: young adults (16-24 years) mid-age adults (25-49 years) and older (≥50 years) adults. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate mortality rates and age and person-time stratified Cox regression to determine factors associated with mortality. Changes in CD4 cell counts were quantified using a piecewise linear model based on follow-up CD4 cell counts measured at six-monthly time points. 8846 adults were included, 808 (9.1%) young adults; 7119 (80.5%) mid-age adults and 919 (10.4%) older adults, with 997 deaths over 14,778 person-years of follow-up. Adjusting for baseline characteristics, older adults had 32% excess mortality (p = 0.004) compared to those aged 25-49 years. Overall mortality rates (MR) per 100 person-years were 6.18 (95% CI 4.90-7.78); 6.55 (95% CI 6.11-7.02) and 8.69 (95% CI 7.34-10.28) for young, mid-age and older adults respectively. In the first year on ART, for older compared to both young and mid-aged adults, MR per 100 person-years were significantly higher; 0-3 months (MR: 27.1 vs 17.17 and 21.36) and 3-12 months (MR: 9.5 vs 4.02 and 6.02) respectively. CD4 count reconstitution was lower, despite better virological response in the older adults. There were no significant differences in MR after 1 year of ART. Baseline markers of advanced disease were independently associated with very early mortality (0-3 months) whilst immunological and virological responses were associated with mortality after 12 months. Early ART initiation and improving clinical care of older adults are required to reduce high early mortality and enhance immunologic recovery, particularly in the initial phases of ART.PLoS ONE 07/2011; 6(7):e21795. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0021795 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Little is known about the effect of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on life expectancy in sub-Saharan Africa. To estimate life expectancy of patients once they initiate cART in Uganda. Prospective cohort study. Public sector HIV and AIDS disease-management program in Uganda. 22 315 eligible patients initiated cART during the study period, of whom 1943 were considered to have died. All-cause mortality rates were calculated and abridged life tables were constructed and stratified by sex and baseline CD4 cell count status to estimate life expectancies for patients receiving cART. The average number of years remaining to be lived by patients who received cART at varying age categories was estimated. After adjustment for loss to follow-up, crude mortality rates (deaths per 1000 person-years) ranged from 26.9 (95% CI, 25.4 to 28.5) in women to 43.9 (CI, 40.7 to 47.0) in men. For patients with a baseline CD4 cell count less than 0.050 × 10(9) cells/L, the mortality rate was 67.3 (CI, 62.1 to 72.9) deaths per 1000 person-years, whereas among persons with a baseline CD4 cell count of 0.250 × 10(9) cells/L or more, the mortality rate was 19.1 (CI, 16.0 to 22.7) deaths per 1000 person-years. Life expectancy at age 20 years for the overall cohort was 26.7 (CI, 25.0 to 28.4) additional years and at age 35 years was 27.9 (CI, 26.7 to 29.1) additional years. Life expectancy increased substantially with increasing baseline CD4 cell count. Similar trends are observed for older age groups. A small (6.4%) proportion of patients were lost to follow-up, and it was imputed that 30% of these patients had died. Few patients with a CD4 cell count greater than 0.250 × 10(9) cells/L initiated cART. Ugandan patients receiving cART can expect an almost normal life expectancy, although there is considerable variability among subgroups of patients. Canadian Institutes of Health Research.Annals of internal medicine 08/2011; 155(4):209-16. DOI:10.1059/0003-4819-155-4-201108160-00358 · 16.10 Impact Factor