High concentrations of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with cystic fibrosis are associated with high interleukin-8 concentrations
ABSTRACT Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is thought to be associated with pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. The measurement of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has recently been suggested to be a reliable indicator of aspiration. The prevalence of pulmonary aspiration in a group of children with CF was assessed and its association with lung inflammation investigated.
This was a cross-sectional case-control study. BAL fluid was collected from individuals with CF (n=31) and healthy controls (n=7). Interleukin-8 (IL-8), pepsin, neutrophil numbers and neutrophil elastase activity levels were measured in all samples. Clinical, microbiological and lung function data were collected from medical notes.
The pepsin concentration in BAL fluid was higher in the CF group than in controls (mean (SD) 24.4 (27.4) ng/ml vs 4.3 (4.0) ng/ml, p=0.03). Those with CF who had raised pepsin concentrations had higher levels of IL-8 in the BAL fluid than those with a concentration comparable to controls (3.7 (2.7) ng/ml vs 1.4 (0.9) ng/ml, p=0.004). Within the CF group there was a moderate positive correlation between pepsin concentration and IL-8 in BAL fluid (r=0.48, p=0.04). There was no association between BAL fluid pepsin concentrations and age, sex, body mass index z score, forced expiratory volume in 1 s or Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation status.
Many children with CF have increased levels of pepsin in the BAL fluid compared with normal controls. Increased pepsin levels were associated with higher IL-8 concentrations in BAL fluid. These data suggest that aspiration of gastric contents occurs in a subset of patients with CF and is associated with more pronounced lung inflammation.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Basil Elnazir, Jun 26, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is increasing in prevalence and is highly associated with several lung diseases such as asthma and COPD. Current diagnostic methods are imperfect, being insensitive, non-specific, expensive, or invasive. An accurate diagnosis of GORD can aid effective treatment and have significant clinical impact. Novel methods such as exhaled breath condensate analysis and electronic nose technology have the potential to improve the accuracy of diagnosing GORD.Frontiers in Pharmacology 07/2011; 2:40. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2011.00040
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ABSTRACT: Current diagnostic methods for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) have moderate sensitivity/specificity and can be invasive and expensive. Pepsin detection in saliva has been proposed as an 'office-based' method for GORD diagnosis. The aims of this study were to establish normal values of salivary pepsin in healthy asymptomatic subjects and to determine its value to discriminate patients with reflux-related symptoms (GORD, hypersensitive oesophagus (HO)) from functional heartburn (FH). 100 asymptomatic controls and 111 patients with heartburn underwent MII-pH monitoring and simultaneous salivary pepsin determination on waking, after lunch and dinner. Cut-off value for pepsin positivity was 16 ng/mL. Patients were divided into GORD (increased acid exposure time (AET), n=58); HO (normal AET and + Symptom Association Probability (SAP), n=26) and FH (normal AET and-SAP, n=27). 1/3 of asymptomatic subjects had pepsin in saliva at low concentration (0(0-59)ng/mL). Patients with GORD and HO had higher prevalence and pepsin concentration than controls (HO, 237(52-311)ng/mL and GORD, 121(29-252)ng/mL)(p<0.05). Patients with FH had low prevalence and concentration of pepsin in saliva (0(0-40) ng/mL). A positive test had 77.6% sensitivity and 63.2% specificity for diagnosis of GORD+HO (likelihood ratio: 2.2). However, one positive sample with >210 ng/mL pepsin suggested presence of GORD+HO with 96% specificity (likelihood ratio: 24.4). Only 18/84 (21.4%) of GORD+HO patients had 3 negative samples. In patients with symptoms suggestive of GORD, salivary pepsin testing may complement questionnaires to assist office-based diagnosis. This may lessen the use of unnecessary antireflux therapy and the need for further invasive and expensive diagnostic methods.Gut 05/2014; 64(3). DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2014-307049 · 13.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Airway disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterised by impaired mucociliary clearance, persistent bacterial infection and neutrophilic inflammation. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) initiates the active resolution of inflammation and promotes airway surface hydration in CF models. 15-Lipoxygenase (LO) plays a central role in the "class switch" of eicosanoid mediator biosynthesis from leukotrienes to lipoxins, initiating the active resolution of inflammation. We hypothesised that defective eicosanoid mediator class switching contributes to the failure to resolve inflammation in CF lung disease.Using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 46 children with CF and 19 paediatric controls we demonstrate that the ratio of LXA4 to leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is depressed in CF BAL (p<0.01), even in the absence of infection (p<0.001).Furthermore, 15-LO2 transcripts were significantly less abundant in CF BAL samples (p<0.05). In control BAL, there were positive relationships between 15-LO2 transcript abundance and LXA4/LTB4 ratio (p = 0.01, r = 0.66) and with percentage macrophage composition of the BAL fluid (p<0.001, r = 0.82), which were absent in CF.Impoverished 15-LO2 expression and depression of the LXA4/LTB4 ratio are observed in paediatric CF BAL. These observations provide mechanistic insights into the failure to resolve inflammation in the CF lung.European Respiratory Journal 04/2014; 44(2). DOI:10.1183/09031936.00106013 · 7.13 Impact Factor