Article

Seeing Is Believing: Effects of Visual Contextual Cues on Learning and Transfer of Locomotor Adaptation

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 6.75). 12/2010; 30(50):17015-22. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4205-10.2010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Devices such as robots or treadmills are often used to drive motor learning because they can create novel physical environments. However, the learning (i.e., adaptation) acquired on these devices only partially generalizes to natural movements. What determines the specificity of motor learning, and can this be reliably made more general? Here we investigated the effect of visual cues on the specificity of split-belt walking adaptation. We systematically removed vision to eliminate the visual-proprioceptive mismatch that is a salient cue specific to treadmills: vision indicates that we are not moving while leg proprioception indicates that we are. We evaluated the adaptation of temporal and spatial features of gait (i.e., timing and location of foot landing), their transfer to walking over ground, and washout of adaptation when subjects returned to the treadmill. Removing vision during both training (i.e., on the treadmill) and testing (i.e., over ground) strongly improved the transfer of treadmill adaptation to natural walking. Removing vision only during training increased transfer of temporal adaptation, whereas removing vision only during testing increased the transfer of spatial adaptation. This dissociation reveals differences in adaptive mechanisms for temporal and spatial features of walking. Finally training without vision increased the amount that was learned and was linked to the variability in the behavior during adaptation. In conclusion, contextual cues can be manipulated to modulate the magnitude, transfer, and washout of device-induced learning in humans. These results bring us closer to our ultimate goal of developing rehabilitation strategies that improve movements beyond the clinical setting.

1 Follower
 · 
84 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. Step length asymmetry (SLA) is a common hallmark of gait poststroke. Though conventionally viewed as a spatial deficit, SLA can result from differences in where the feet are placed relative to the body (step position strategy), the timing between foot strikes (step time strategy), or the velocity of the body relative to the feet (step velocity strategy). Objective. The goal of this study was to characterize the relative contributions of each of these strategies to SLA. Methods. We developed an analytical model that parses SLA into independent step position, step time, and step velocity contributions. This model was validated by reproducing SLA values for 25 healthy participants when their natural symmetric gait was perturbed on a split-belt treadmill moving at either a 2:1 or 3:1 belt-speed ratio. We then applied the validated model to quantify step position, step time, and step velocity contributions to SLA in 15 stroke survivors while walking at their self-selected speed. Results. SLA was predicted precisely by summing the derived contributions, regardless of the belt-speed ratio. Although the contributions to SLA varied considerably across our sample of stroke survivors, the step position contribution tended to oppose the other 2-possibly as an attempt to minimize overall SLA. Conclusions. Our results suggest that changes in where the feet are placed or changes in interlimb timing could be used as compensatory strategies to reduce overall SLA in stroke survivors. These results may allow clinicians and researchers to identify patient-specific gait abnormalities and personalize their therapeutic approaches accordingly. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 01/2015; DOI:10.1177/1545968314567149 · 5.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to elucidate the adaptive and de-adaptive nature of human running on a split-belt treadmill. The degree of adaptation and de-adaptation was compared with those in walking by calculating the antero-posterior component of the ground reaction force (GRF). Adaptation to walking and running on a split-belt resulted in a prominent asymmetry in the movement pattern upon return to the normal belt condition, while the two components of the GRF showed different behaviors depending on the gaits. The anterior braking component showed prominent adaptive and de-adaptive behaviors in both gaits. The posterior propulsive component, on the other hand, exhibited such behavior only in running, while that in walking showed only short-term aftereffect (lasting less than 10 seconds) accompanied by largely reactive responses. These results demonstrate a possible difference in motor strategies (that is, the use of reactive feedback and adaptive feedforward control) by the central nervous system (CNS) for split-belt locomotor adaptation between walking and running. The present results provide basic knowledge on neural control of human walking and running as well as possible strategies for gait training in athletic and rehabilitation scenes.
    PLoS ONE 10(3):e0121951. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0121951 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During movement, errors are typically corrected only if they hinder performance. Preferential correction of task-relevant deviations is described by the minimal intervention principle, but has not been demonstrated in the joints during locomotor adaptation. We studied hopping as a tractable model of locomotor adaptation of the joints within the context of a limb-force-specific task space. Subjects hopped while adapting to shifted visual feedback that induced them to increase peak ground reaction force (GRF). We hypothesized subjects would preferentially reduce task-relevant joint torque deviations over task-irrelevant deviations to increase peak GRF. We employed a modified uncontrolled manifold analysis to quantify task-relevant and task-irrelevant joint torque deviations for each individual hop cycle. As would be expected by the explicit goal of the task, peak GRF errors decreased in early adaptation before reaching steady state during late adaptation. Interestingly, during the early adaptation performance improvement phase, subjects reduced GRF errors by decreasing only the task-relevant joint torque deviations. In contrast, during the late adaption performance maintenance phase, all torque deviations decreased in unison regardless of task relevance. In de-adaptation, when the shift in visual feedback was removed, all torque deviations decreased in unison, possibly because performance improvement was too rapid to detect changes in only the task-relevant dimension. We conclude that limb force adaptation in hopping switches from a minimal intervention strategy during performance improvement to a noise reduction strategy during performance maintenance, which may represent a general control strategy for locomotor adaptation of limb force in other bouncing gaits, such as running. Copyright © 2014, Journal of Neurophysiology.
    Journal of Neurophysiology 12/2014; DOI:10.1152/jn.00246.2014 · 3.04 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
3 Downloads
Available from