Article

mGluR5 in Cortical Excitatory Neurons Exerts Both Cell-Autonomous and -Nonautonomous Influences on Cortical Somatosensory Circuit Formation

The Cain Foundation Laboratories, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 6.75). 12/2010; 30(50):16896-909. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2462-10.2010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Glutamatergic neurotransmission plays important roles in sensory map formation. The absence of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) leads to abnormal sensory map formation throughout the mouse somatosensory pathway. To examine the role of cortical mGluR5 expression on barrel map formation, we generated cortex-specific mGluR5 knock-out (KO) mice. Eliminating mGluR5 function solely in cortical excitatory neurons affects, not only the whisker-related organization of cortical neurons (barrels), but also the patterning of their presynaptic partners, the thalamocortical axons (TCAs). In contrast, subcortical whisker maps develop normally in cortical-mGluR5 KO mice. In the S1 cortex of cortical-mGluR5 KO, layer IV neurons are homogenously distributed and have no clear relationship to the location of TCA clusters. The altered dendritic morphology of cortical layer IV spiny stellate neurons in cortical-mGluR5 KO mice argues for a cell-autonomous role of mGluR5 in dendritic patterning. Furthermore, morphometric analysis of single TCAs in both cortical- and global-mGluR5 KO mice demonstrated that in these mice, the complexity of axonal arbors is reduced, while the area covered by TCA arbors is enlarged. Using voltage-clamp whole-cell recordings in acute thalamocortical brain slices, we found that KO of mGluR5 from cortical excitatory neurons reduced inhibitory but not excitatory inputs onto layer IV neurons. This suggests that mGluR5 signaling in cortical excitatory neurons nonautonomously modulates the functional development of GABAergic circuits. Together, our data provide strong evidence that mGluR5 signaling in cortical principal neurons exerts both cell-autonomous and -nonautonomous influences to modulate the formation of cortical sensory circuits.

1 Follower
 · 
134 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glutamate is used as an excitatory neurotransmitter by the koniocellular (K), magnocellular (M), and parvocellular (P) pathways to transfer signals from the primate lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) to primary visual cortex (V1). Glutamate acts through both fast ionotropic receptors, which appear to carry the main sensory message, and slower, modulatory metabotropic receptors (mGluRs). In this study, we asked whether mGluR5 relates in distinct ways to the K, M, and P LGN axons in V1. To answer this question, we used light microscopic immunocytochemistry and preembedding electron microscopic immunogold labeling to determine the localization of mGluR5 within the layers of V1 in relation to the K, M, and P pathways in macaque and squirrel monkeys. These pathways were labeled separately via wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) injections targeting the LGN layers. mGluR5 is of interest because it: 1) has been shown to be expressed in the thalamic input layers; 2) appears to be responsible for some types of oscillatory firing, which could be important in the binding of visual features; and 3) has been associated with a number of sensory-motor gating-related pathologies, including schizophrenia and autism. Our results demonstrated the presence of mGluR5 in the neuropil of all V1 layers. This protein was lowest in IVCα (M input) and the infragranular layers. In layer IVC, mGluR5 also was found postsynaptic to about 30% of labeled axons, but the distribution was uneven, such that postsynaptic mGluR5 label tended to occur opposite smaller (presumed P), and not larger (presumed M) axon terminals. Only in the K pathway in layer IIIB, however, was mGluR5 always found in the axon terminals themselves. The presence of mGluR5 in K axons and not in M and P axons, and the presence of mGluR5 postsynaptic mainly to smaller P and not larger M axons suggest that the response to the release of glutamate is modulated in distinct ways within and between the parallel visual pathways of primates.
    Eye and Brain 09/2014; 6:29-43.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Both short- and long-term roles for the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor number 5 (mGluR5) have been examined for the regulation of cortical glutamatergic synapses. But how mGluR5 sculpts neocortical networks during development still remains unclear. Using a single-cell deletion strategy, we examined how mGluR5 regulates glutamatergic synaptic pathways in neocortical layer 2/3 during development. Electrophysiological measurements were made in acutely prepared slices to obtain a functional understanding of the effects stemming from loss of mGluR5 in vivo. Loss of postsynaptic mGluR5 results in an increase in the frequency of action potential-independent synaptic events, but paradoxically, results in a decrease in evoked transmission in 2 separate synaptic pathways providing input to the same pyramidal neurons. Synaptic transmission through AMPARs, but not NMDARs, is specifically decreased. In the local L2/3 pathway, the decrease in evoked transmission appears to be largely due to a decrease in cell-to-cell connectivity and not in the strength of individual cell-to-cell connections. This decrease in evoked transmission correlates with a decrease in the total dendritic length in a region of the dendritic arbor that likely receives substantial input from these two pathways, thereby suggesting a morphological correlate to functional alterations. These changes are accompanied by an increase in intrinsic membrane excitability. Our data indicate that total mGluR5 function, incorporating both short- and long-term processes, promotes the strengthening of AMPAR-mediated transmission in multiple neocortical pathways.
    Journal of Neurophysiology 11/2014; 113(3):jn.00465.2014. DOI:10.1152/jn.00465.2014 · 3.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cyclic AMP signaling is critical for activity-dependent refinement of neuronal circuits. Global disruption of adenylyl cyclase 1 (AC1), the major calcium/clamodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase in the brain, impairs formation of whisker-related discrete neural modules (the barrels) in cortical layer 4 in mice. Since AC1 is expressed both in the thalamus and the neocortex, the question whether pre- or postsynaptic (or both) AC1 plays a role in barrel formation has emerged. Previously, we generated cortex-specific AC1 knockout (Cx-AC1KO) mice and found that these animals develop histologically normal barrels, suggesting a potentially more prominent role for thalamic AC1 in barrel formation. To determine this, we generated three new lines of mice: One in which AC1 is disrupted in nearly half of the thalamic ventrobasal nucleus cells in addition to the cortical excitatory neurons (Cx/pTh-AC1KO mouse), and another in which AC1 is disrupted in the thalamus but not in the cortex or brainstem nuclei of the somatosensory system (Th-AC1KO mouse). Cx/pTh-AC1KO mice show severe deficits in barrel formation. Th-AC1KO mice show even more severe disruption in barrel patterning. In these two lines, single thalamocortical (TC) axon labeling revealed larger lateral extent of TC axons in layer 4 compared to controls. In the third line, all calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclases (both AC1 and AC8) are deleted in cortical excitatory neurons. These mice have normal barrels. Taken together, these results indicate that thalamic AC1 plays a major role in patterning and refinement of the mouse TC circuitry. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Neuroscience 01/2015; 290. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.01.043 · 3.33 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
17 Downloads
Available from
Aug 5, 2014