A PDI family network acts distinctly and coordinately with ERp29 to facilitate polyomavirus infection.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.
Journal of Virology (Impact Factor: 4.65). 03/2011; 85(5):2386-96. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01855-10
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-cytosol membrane transport is a decisive infection step for the murine polyomavirus (Py). We previously determined that ERp29, a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) member, extrudes the Py VP1 C-terminal arm to initiate ER membrane penetration. This reaction requires disruption of Py's disulfide bonds. Here, we found that the PDI family members ERp57, PDI, and ERp72 facilitate virus infection. However, while all three proteins disrupt Py's disulfide bonds in vitro, only ERp57 and PDI operate in concert with ERp29 to unfold the VP1 C-terminal arm. An alkylated Py cannot stimulate infection, implying a pivotal role of viral free cysteines during infection. Consistent with this, we found that although PDI and ERp72 reduce Py, ERp57 principally isomerizes the virus in vitro, a reaction that requires viral free cysteines. Our mutagenesis study subsequently identified VP1 C11 and C15 as important for infection, suggesting a role for these residues during isomerization. C11 and C15 also act together to stabilize interpentamer interactions for a subset of the virus pentamers, likely because some of these residues form interpentamer disulfide bonds. This study reveals how a PDI family functions coordinately and distinctly to promote Py infection and pinpoints a role of viral cysteines in this process.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The human JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) causes a lifelong persistent infection in the reno-urinary tract in the majority of the adult population worldwide. In healthy individuals, infection is asymptomatic, while in immunocompromised individuals, the virus can spread to the central nervous system and cause a fatal demyelinating disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). There are currently very few treatment options for this rapidly progressing and devastating disease. Understanding the basic biology of JCPyV-host cell interactions is critical for the development of therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat PML. Research in our laboratory has focused on gaining a detailed mechanistic understanding of the initial steps in the JCPyV life cycle in order to define how JCPyV selectively targets cells in the kidney and brain. JCPyV requires sialic acids to attach to host cells and initiate infection, and JCPyV demonstrates specificity for the oligosaccharide lactoseries tetrasaccharide c (LSTc) with an α2,6-linked sialic acid. Following viral attachment, JCPyV entry is facilitated by the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2 family of serotonin receptors via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. JCPyV then undergoes retrograde transport to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where viral disassembly begins. A novel retrograde transport inhibitor termed Retro-2(cycl) prevents trafficking of JCPyV to the ER and inhibits both initial virus infection and infectious spread in cell culture. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which JCPyV establishes infection will open up new avenues for the prevention or treatment of virus-induced disease.
    Journal of NeuroVirology 07/2014; DOI:10.1007/s13365-014-0272-4 · 3.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To get access to the replication site, small non-enveloped DNA viruses have to cross the cell membrane using a limited number of capsid proteins, which also protect the viral genome in the extracellular environment. Most of DNA viruses have to reach the nucleus to replicate. The capsid proteins involved in transmembrane penetration are exposed or released during endosomal trafficking of the virus. Subsequently, the conserved domains of capsid proteins interact with cellular membranes and ensure their efficient permeabilization. This review summarizes our current knowledge concerning the role of capsid proteins of small non-enveloped DNA viruses in intracellular membrane perturbation in the early stages of infection.
    Viruses 07/2014; 6(7):2899-2937. DOI:10.3390/v6072899 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Virus genomes are condensed and packaged inside stable proteinaceous capsids that serve to protect them during transit from one cell or host organism, to the next. During virus entry, capsid shells are primed and disassembled in a complex, tightly-regulated, multi-step process termed uncoating. Here we compare the uncoating-programs of DNA viruses of the pox-, herpes-, adeno-, polyoma-, and papillomavirus families. Highlighting the chemical and mechanical cues virus capsids respond to, we review the conformational changes that occur during stepwise disassembly of virus capsids and how these culminate in the release of viral genomes at the right time and cellular location to assure successful replication. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Virology 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2015.01.024 · 3.35 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 20, 2014