Mechanism of Action of Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 to Increase IGF-I mRNA in Intestinal Subepithelial Fibroblasts
ABSTRACT IGF-I, a known secretory product of intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs), is essential for the intestinotropic effects of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). Furthermore, GLP-2 increases IGF-I mRNA transcript levels in vitro in heterogeneous fetal rat intestinal cultures, as well as in vivo in the rodent small intestine. To determine the mechanism underlying the stimulatory effect of GLP-2 on intestinal IGF-I mRNA, murine ISEMF cells were placed into primary culture. Immunocytochemistry showed that the ISEMF cells appropriately expressed α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin but not desmin. The cells also expressed GLP-2 receptor and IGF-I mRNA transcripts. Treatment of ISEMF cells with (Gly2)GLP-2 induced IGF-I mRNA transcripts by up to 5-fold of basal levels after treatment with 10(-8) m GLP-2 for 2 h (P < 0.05) but did not increase transcript levels for other intestinal growth factors, such as ErbB family members. Immunoblot revealed a 1.6-fold increase in phospho (p)-Akt/total-(t)Akt with 10(-8) m GLP-2 treatment (P < 0.05) but no changes in cAMP, cAMP-dependent β-galactosidase expression, pcAMP response element-binding protein/tcAMP response element-binding protein, pErk1/2/tErk1/2, or intracellular calcium. Furthermore, pretreatment of ISEMF cells with the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitors, LY294002 and wortmannin, abrogated the IGF-I mRNA response to GLP-2, as did overexpression of kinase-dead Akt. The role of PI3K/Akt in GLP-2-induced IGF-I mRNA levels in the murine jejunum was also confirmed in vivo. These findings implicate the PI3K/Akt pathway in the stimulatory effects of GLP-2 to enhance intestinal IGF-I mRNA transcript levels and provide further evidence in support of a role for IGF-I produced by the ISEMF cells in the intestinotropic effects of GLP-2.
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ABSTRACT: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a peptide hormone with multiple beneficial effects on the intestine, including expansion of the mucosal surface area through stimulation of crypt cell proliferation, as well as enhancement of nutrient digestion and absorption. Recent advances in clinical trials involving GLP-2 necessitate elucidation of the exact signaling pathways by which GLP-2 acts. In particular, the GLP-2 receptor has been localized to several intestinal cell types that do not include the proliferating crypt cells, and the actions of GLP-2 have thus been linked to a complex network of indirect mediators that induce diverse signaling pathways. The intestinotropic actions of GLP-2 on the colon have been shown to be mediated through the actions of keratinocyte growth factor and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-2, whereas small intestinal growth has been linked to IGF-1, IGF-2, and ErbB ligands, as well as the IGF-1 receptor and ErbB. The cellular source of these mediators remains unclear, but it likely includes the intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Conversely, the anti-inflammatory and blood flow effects of GLP-2 are dependent on vasoactive intestinal polypeptide released from submucosal enteric neurons and nitric oxide, respectively. Finally, recent studies have suggested that GLP-2 not only modulates intestinal stem cell behavior but may also promote carcinogenesis in models of sporadic colon cancer. Further consideration of the molecular cross-talk and downstream signaling pathways mediating the intestinotropic effects of GLP-2 is clearly warranted.AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 04/2011; 301(1):G1-8. DOI:10.1152/ajpgi.00039.2011 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is an intestinal hormone that promotes growth of the gastrointestinal tract. Although insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) are required for GLP-2-induced proliferation of crypt cells, little is known about localization of the IGF-1R which mediates the intestinotropic actions of GLP-2. We examined intestinal growth and proliferative responses in mice with conditional deletion of IGF-1R from intestinal epithelial cells (IE-igf1rKO) after acute administration (30-90 min) of GLP-2, in response to 24-hour fasting and re-feeding (to induce GLP-2-dependent adaptation), and after chronic exposure (10 days) to GLP-2. IE-igf1rKO mice had normal small intestinal weight, morphometric parameters, proliferative indices, and distribution of differentiated epithelial cell lineages. Acute administration of GLP-2 increased nuclear translocation of β-catenin in non-Paneth crypt cells and stimulated the crypt-cell proliferative marker c-Myc in control but not IE-igf1rKO mice. Small intestinal weight, crypt depth, villus height, and crypt-cell proliferation were decreased in control and IE-igf1rKO mice after 24-hour fasting. Although re-feeding control mice restored all of these parameters, re-fed IE-igf1rKO mice had reductions in adaptive regrowth of the villi and crypt-cell proliferation. Control mice that were given chronic GLP-2 had increases in small intestinal weight, mucosal cross-sectional area, crypt depth, villus height, and crypt-cell proliferation. However, the GLP-2-induced increase in crypt-cell proliferation was not observed in IE-igf1rKO mice, and growth of the crypt-villus axis was reduced. The proliferative responses of the intestinal epithelium to exogenous GLP-2 administration and conditions of GLP-2-dependent adaptive re-growth require the intestinal epithelial IGF-1R.Gastroenterology 09/2011; 141(6). DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2011.09.014 · 13.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) play a key role in nutrient digestion and absorption, and are essential for normal life. Recently, EEC function has received considerable attention because several gastrointestinal hormones modulate insulin secretion and food intake; and, gut hormone-based therapies have been developed to treat diabetes mellitus. Despite these advances, the regulation of EECs remains poorly understood. The development of transgenic mouse models that express green fluorescent proteins (GFP) under specific hormone promoters (e.g., peptide YY-GFP) is shedding light onto previously overlooked features of EECs. These cells have prominent cytoplasmic processes that extend underneath enterocytes, and in some EECs, such as the L cell of the distal ileum, the basal process can be over 50 μm long. These basal cytoplasmic processes resemble axons and end in synaptic-like bouton. The location and anatomy of these processes suggest two functions: (1) to monitor absorbed nutrients at the base of enterocytes; and (2) to convey electrochemical information through cell-cell connections with subepithelial myofibroblasts and/or nerves located directly beneath in the lamina propria. Understanding how EECs communicate with cells in the lamina propria may provide novel ways to treat metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes.Clinical and Translational Science 10/2011; 4(5):387-91. DOI:10.1111/j.1752-8062.2011.00299.x · 2.11 Impact Factor