The MCCB impairment profile for schizophrenia outpatients: Results from the MATRICS psychometric and standardization study

UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience & Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90073, United States.
Schizophrenia Research (Impact Factor: 3.92). 03/2011; 126(1-3):124-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2010.11.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The MATRICS Psychometric and Standardization Study was conducted as a final stage in the development of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). The study included 176 persons with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 300 community residents. Data were analyzed to examine the cognitive profile of clinically stable schizophrenia patients on the MCCB. Secondarily, the data were analyzed to identify which combination of cognitive domains and corresponding cut-off scores best discriminated patients from community residents, and patients competitively employed vs. those not. Raw scores on the ten MCCB tests were entered into the MCCB scoring program which provided age- and gender-corrected T-scores on seven cognitive domains. To test for between-group differences, we conducted a 2 (group)×7 (cognitive domain) MANOVA with follow-up independent t-tests on the individual domains. Classification and regression trees (CART) were used for the discrimination analyses. Examination of patient T-scores across the seven cognitive domains revealed a relatively compact profile with T-scores ranging from 33.4 for speed of processing to 39.3 for reasoning and problem-solving. Speed of processing and social cognition best distinguished individuals with schizophrenia from community residents; speed of processing along with visual learning and attention/vigilance optimally distinguished patients competitively employed from those who were not. The cognitive profile findings provide a standard to which future studies can compare results from other schizophrenia samples and related disorders; the classification results point to specific areas and levels of cognitive impairment that may advance work rehabilitation efforts.

Download full-text


Available from: Lyle E Baade, Sep 27, 2015
19 Reads
  • Source
    • "The BACSsc is a measure of processing speed that requires subjects to map the numbers 1–9 onto corresponding symbols as quickly as possible for 90 s. Both tasks have been validated and reveal large effect sizes for deficits in schizophrenia (Dickinson et al., 2007; Kern et al., 2011). The DPX is a task of goal maintenance during which subjects observe sequentially presented symbols, and must indicate 'target' if they see a target-cue ('A') followed by a target-probe ('X'). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Growing evidence suggests that coordinated activity within specific functional brain networks supports cognitive ability, and that abnormalities in brain connectivity may underlie cognitive deficits observed in neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia. Two functional networks, the fronto-parietal network (FPN) and cingulo-opercular network (CON), are hypothesized to support top-down control of executive functioning, and have therefore emerged as potential drivers of cognitive impairment in disease-states. Graph theoretic analyses of functional connectivity data can characterize network topology, allowing the relationships between cognitive ability and network integrity to be examined. In the current study we applied graph analysis to pseudo-resting state data in 54 healthy subjects and 46 schizophrenia patients, and measured overall cognitive ability as the shared variance in performance from tasks of episodic memory, verbal memory, processing speed, goal maintenance, and visual integration. We found that, across all participants, cognitive ability was significantly positively associated with the local and global efficiency of the whole brain, FPN, and CON, but not with the efficiency of a comparison network, the auditory network. Additionally, the participation coefficient of the right anterior insula, a major hub within the CON, significantly predicted cognition, and this relationship was independent of CON global efficiency. Surprisingly, we did not observe strong evidence for group differences in any of our network metrics. These data suggest that functionally efficient task control networks support better cognitive ability in both health and schizophrenia, and that the right anterior insula may be a particularly important hub for successful cognitive performance across both health and disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Neuropsychologia 05/2015; 73. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.05.006 · 3.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Cognitive deficits are salient clinical features of schizophrenia that impact functioning and are crucial to effective treatment. There is a broad range of cognitive functions that are defective in schizophrenia patients, particularly attention, speed of processing, working memory, learning, motor, executive, and social cognitive functions (Kern et al., 2011; Schaefer et al., 2013). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In schizophrenia patients, both an older age and earlier age at onset of the disease are related to worse cognitive functioning. As patients with later schizophrenia onset are also older, analysing the two effects separately can be misleading, as they can either be spurious or cancel one another out. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the effects of age and onset-age on cognition in schizophrenia patients. Individuals with schizophrenia (N = 151), aged 18-59 years, were examined with MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) to get a full picture of their cognitive performance. Results showed age and age at onset indeed interrelated. Regression analyses revealed later onset of schizophrenia related to better social cognition. Patients’ older age, was related to a slower performance in symbol coding task, less effective executive functions, worse visual learning, lower attention, and lower total score in the MCCB. In the above regression analyses we controlled for doses of antipsychotic medications. The results suggest that a previously found relationship between older age and social cognition might be spurious, and strengthen observations that it is specifically later onset-age which fosters better social cognition in schizophrenia patients.
    Psychiatry Research 01/2015; 225:197-201. DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.11.024 · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Please cite this article as: Eifler, S., et al., Metamemory in schizophrenia: Retrospective confidence ratings interact with neurocognitive deficits. Psychiatry Research (2014), deficits in neuropsychological functioning in all tested domains of the MCCB (see also Kern et al. (2011)) and the WCST. We identified correlations in the total group between metamemory indices and two neuropsychological domains. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prior studies with schizophrenia patients described a reduced ability to discriminate between correct and false memories in terms of confidence compared to control groups. This metamemory bias has been associated with the emergence and maintenance of delusions. The relation to neuropsychological performance and other clinical dimensions is incompletely understood. In a cross-sectional study, metamemory functioning was explored in 32 schizophrenia patients and 25 healthy controls. Metamemory was assessed using a verbal recognition task combined with retrospective confidence level ratings. Associations of metamemory performance with six neuropsychological domains (executive functioning/problem solving, speed of processing, working memory, verbal and visual learning, and attention/vigilance) and psychopathological measures were analyzed. Results revealed a significantly smaller discrepancy between confidence ratings for correct and incorrect recognitions in the patient group. Furthermore, patients showed significantly lower recognition accuracy in the metamemory task and marked deficits in all neuropsychological domains. Across all participants, metamemory performance significantly correlated with executive functioning and working memory. No associations with delusions were found. This data confirms prior findings of metamemory biases in schizophrenia. Selective neuropsychological abilities seem to be modulating factors of metamemory functioning. Longitudinal studies in at risk mental state and first-episode patients are needed to reveal causal interrelations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Psychiatry Research 12/2014; 225(3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.11.040 · 2.47 Impact Factor
Show more