Cushing's syndrome in pregnancy with a severe maternal complication: a case report.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea.
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research (Impact Factor: 0.84). 02/2011; 37(2):163-7. DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2010.01339.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cushing's syndrome (CS) in pregnancy may be confused with a complication of pregnancy, such as pre-eclampsia or gestational diabetes. We managed a case of CS in pregnancy that was considered to be severe pre-eclampsia due to uncontrolled hypertension. The fetus was delivered via emergency cesarean section at 31 weeks' gestation because of severe pre-eclampsia and pulmonary edema. The parturient was admitted to the intensive care unit for severe maternal complications, including pulmonary hemorrhage, acute renal failure, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, and congestive heart failure. A spine magnetic resonance image and 99m-technetium whole-body scan obtained postpartum showed multiple thoracolumbar spine compression fractures (Deleted; t-2,5,8,10,11, and -12; and L-1,2,3,4, and -5), multiple rib fractures, and a left iliac bone fracture due to osteoporosis. As a result of diagnosing CS after delivery, an adrenal cortical adenoma of the right adrenal gland was demonstrated and a laparoscopic adrenalectomy was successfully performed.

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction During normal pregnancy there are significant changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, with increased levels of plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone which sometimes reach values observed in patients with Cushing’s syndrome. Cushing’s syndrome (CS) is rarely encountered during pregnancy, but is associated with serious maternal and fetal complications. Case presentation A 31-year-old female was admitted to our institution four weeks after delivery. Physical examination revealed moon face, purple striae throughout the abdomen, bruising over the legs, a dorsocervical fat pad and hirsutism. She delivered a eutrophic preterm newborn at 34 weeks gestation, without any maternal or fetal complications during delivery. Imaging showed a mass in the right suprarenal gland with a normal pituitary. After four weeks the patient underwent a right adrenalectomy. The mass was eventually identified as an adrenocortical adenoma. Conclusion In our case the diagnosis of CS was established only after pregnancy, which enabled the development of numerous adverse consequences secondary to increased plasma cortisol. If CS is recognized during pregnancy, treatment and its timing could be carefully chosen according to the patient’s individual characteristics.
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    ABSTRACT: Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy is a rare metabolic condition that is associated with high maternal and foetal morbidity. Clinical symptoms may mimic those of normal pregnancy. A diagnosis is best made based on clinical presentation, laboratory and imaging findings as well as a high index of suspicion. Medical management with anti-steroidogenic agents such as metyrapone has been shown to be effective, but surgery is usually the recommended treatment option. Its main limitation is optimal timing of the procedure in late first trimester or early second trimester to prevent spontaneous termination of pregnancy. We describe our experience and management of a 39-year-old patient with uncontrolled hypertension at 25 weeks gestation which was later diagnosed as ACTH independent Cushing's syndrome and had a favourable pregnancy outcome. The role of medical therapy and its challenges, as well as its impact on pregnancy outcomes, were explored by a literature search conducted through Pubmed and Medline databases. A total of 12 patients with Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy were reported to have been managed with metyrapone, with ketoconazole being studied to a significant degree in three cases. Of these women, 53% delivered close to term and 20% developed pre-eclampsia. Despite two neonatal deaths and one stillborn reported, medical management appeared effective in controlling hypercortisolemia during pregnancy with strict monitoring of blood pressure and foetal surveillance. It remains the only active management in the setting of pregnancy-induced Cushing's syndrome, and has shown to be a viable option in controlling serum cortisol levels especially as an adjunct to surgery as reflected in four cases. A multidisciplinary approach towards an individualised management process is warranted with medical management to ensure a safe maternal and foetal outcome.
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case of Cushing syndrome secondary to adrenal adenoma presenting with hypertension and oligohydramnios during pregnancy. The tumor was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging at 28 week 3 day weeks of pregnancy and was removed surgically at 29 week 1 day weeks of gestation. After surgery, hypertension subsided and amniotic fluid volume returned to normal range. The gravid woman subsequently delivered a healthy infant at term.
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