Vascular depression: Where do we go from here?
GGNet Mental Health Center for Old Age Psychiatry, PO Box 928, 7301 BD Apeldoorn, The Netherlands.Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics (Impact Factor: 2.78). 01/2011; 11(1):77-83. DOI: 10.1586/ern.10.92
Vascular depression has been the topic of many studies since its revival at the end of the last century. Several important conclusions can be drawn from this research. First, from a conceptual point of view, it is a potentially valuable eiotological based new entity. Second, vascular depression encompasses not only depression with small vessel disease of the brain, but also poststroke depression, and depression related to myocardial infarction should be placed in this same category of vascular depression. Third, the treatment outcome and natural course of vascular depression have been much worse than that of the nonvascular depression. Fourth, more research on vascular depression is needed, especially on interventions. Poststroke antidepressant and psychoeducation therapy and vascular preventive interventions can probably improve outcome.
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- "Late-life depression is associated with cognitive impairment, chronic medical illnesses, medication use, and neurodegenerative diseases (Alexopoulos, 2005), characteristics that have a direct impact on physical activity as well as on the phenomenology of the depression. Several studies have pointed to the prolonged course and negative treatment effects in the presence of co-morbid executive dysfunction and co-morbid vascular disease in late-life depression (Naarding and Beekman, 2011; Alexopoulos and Kelly, 2009). These differences are clinically relevant, as a recent study found that 'negative symptoms' of depression – such as loss of interest, diminished activity, and indecisiveness – predict poor outcome of antidepressant treatment and require a more multidisciplinary approach with additional treatment strategies such as behavioral activation and exercise (Uher et al., 2011). "
ABSTRACT: Background Knowledge about characteristics explaining low level of physical activity in late-life depression is needed to develop specific interventions aimed at improving physical health in depressed people above the age of 60. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO), a longitudinal multi-site naturalistic cohort study. People aged 60 and over with current depression and a non-depressed comparison group were included, and total amount of PA per week was assessed with the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Depression characteristics, socio-demographics, cognitive function, somatic condition, psycho-social, environment and other lifestyle factors were added in a multiple regression analysis. Results Depressed persons >60 y were less physically active in comparison with non-depressed subjects. The difference was determined by somatic condition (especially, functional limitations) and by psychosocial characteristics (especially sense of mastery). Within the depressed subgroup only, a lower degree of physical activity was associated with more functional limitations, being an inpatient, and the use of more medication, but not with the severity of the depression. Limitation This study is based on cross-sectional data, so no conclusions can be drawn regarding causality. Conclusions This study confirms that depression in people over 60 is associated with lower physical activity. Patient characteristics seem more important than the depression diagnosis itself or the severity of depression. Interventions aimed at improving physical activity in depressed persons aged 60 and over should take these characteristics into account.Journal of Affective Disorders 06/2014; 161:65–72. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.03.001 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A relationship between depression and mortality has been well established, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the influence of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), characterized by white matter lesions (WMLs) and lacunar infarcts, on the relationship between mood mortality during 6 years follow-up. Mood problems were assessed with the mental component summary of the 36-item Short-Form Medical Outcomes Study in 1110 patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (mean age 59 years). Volumetric WML estimates were obtained with 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging; lacunar infarcts were scored visually. Cox regression models were adjusted for age, sex, vascular risk, physical functioning, antidepressants and infarcts. We adjusted for CSVD to examine whether it may be an intermediate or confounding factor. Second, we added interaction terms to investigate whether associations differed between patients with CSVD (absent/present). Patients in the lowest quartile of mental functioning, representing most severe mood problems, were at higher, although not significant, risk of death (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.94-2.30) compared with patients in higher quartiles. Adjustment for CSVD did not change this association. Lacunar infarcts, not WML, modified the association of mood problems with mortality (p value for interaction = .01); mood problems strongly increased the risk of mortality in patients with lacunar infarcts (HR = 2.75, 95% CI = 1.41-5.38) but not in those without it (HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.39-1.57). Patients with lacunar infarcts may be especially vulnerable for the effect of mood problems on mortality.Psychosomatic Medicine 03/2012; 74(3):234-40. DOI:10.1097/PSY.0b013e31824f5ab0 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence and course of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in geriatric patients admitted to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for rehabilitation after stroke. This was a longitudinal multicenter study within 15 SNFs in the Netherlands. NPS were assessed in 145 patients with stroke through the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home version (NPI-NH) with measurements on admission and at discharge. The prevalence and course of NPS were described in terms of cumulative prevalence (symptoms either on admission or at discharge), conversion (only symptoms at discharge), remission (only symptoms on admission), and persistence (symptoms both on admission and at discharge) for patients who were discharged to an independent living situation within one year after admission and patients who had to stay in the SNF for long term care. Eighty percent had a first-ever stroke and 74% could be successfully discharged. Overall, the most common NPS were depression (33%), eating changes (18%), night-time disturbances (19%), anxiety (15%), irritability (12%), and disinhibition (12%). One year after admission, the patients who were still in the SNF showed significantly more hallucinations (p = 0.016), delusions (p = 0.016), agitation (p = 0.004), depression (p = 0.000), disinhibition (p = 0.004), irritability (p = 0.018), and night-time disturbances (p = 0.001) than those who had been discharged. The overall prevalence of NPS in this study was lower than reported by other studies in different settings. There was a high prevalence of NPS in patients that could not be successfully discharged. The findings suggest that NPS should be optimally treated to improve outcome of rehabilitation.International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 07/2012; 27(7):734-41. DOI:10.1002/gps.2781 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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