Activation of the Regulator of G Protein Signaling 14−Gαi1-GDP Signaling Complex Is Regulated by Resistance to Inhibitors of Cholinesterase-8A

Department of Pharmacology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, United States.
Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 3.02). 02/2011; 50(5):752-62. DOI: 10.1021/bi101910n
Source: PubMed


RGS14 is a brain scaffolding protein that integrates G protein and MAP kinase signaling pathways. Like other RGS proteins, RGS14 is a GTPase activating protein (GAP) that terminates Gαi/o signaling. Unlike other RGS proteins, RGS14 also contains a G protein regulatory (also known as GoLoco) domain that binds Gαi1/3-GDP in cells and in vitro. Here we report that Ric-8A, a nonreceptor guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), functionally interacts with the RGS14-Gαi1-GDP signaling complex to regulate its activation state. RGS14 and Ric-8A are recruited from the cytosol to the plasma membrane in the presence of coexpressed Gαi1 in cells, suggesting formation of a functional protein complex with Gαi1. Consistent with this idea, Ric-8A stimulates dissociation of the RGS14-Gαi1-GDP complex in cells and in vitro using purified proteins. Purified Ric-8A stimulates dissociation of the RGS14-Gαi1-GDP complex to form a stable Ric-8A-Gαi complex in the absence of GTP. In the presence of an activating nucleotide, Ric-8A interacts with the RGS14-Gαi1-GDP complex to stimulate both the steady-state GTPase activity of Gαi1 and binding of GTP to Gαi1. However, sufficiently high concentrations of RGS14 competitively reverse these stimulatory effects of Ric-8A on Gαi1 nucleotide binding and GTPase activity. This observation correlates with findings that show RGS14 and Ric-8A share an overlapping binding region within the last 11 amino acids of Gαi1. As further evidence that these proteins are functionally linked, native RGS14 and Ric-8A coexist within the same hippocampal neurons. These findings demonstrate that RGS14 is a newly appreciated integrator of unconventional Ric-8A and Gαi1 signaling.

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    • "We finally tested the role of the C-terminal region of Ga proteins in Ric-8A-mediated stabilization. It has been shown that the C-terminus of Gai is required for direct interaction with Ric- 8A, on the basis of assays using purified proteins [22] [34]. Here we tested the role of the C-terminal region in the interaction of Ric-8 with Gai2 and Gaq at the cellular level. "
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    ABSTRACT: The cytosolic protein Ric-8A acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Gα subunits of the Gi, Gq, and G12/13 classes of heterotrimeric G protein in vitro, and also increases the amounts of these Gα proteins in vivo. The mechanism whereby Ric-8 regulates Gα content has not been fully understood. Here we show that Ric-8A appears to stabilize Gαi2 and Gαq by preventing their ubiquitination. Ric-8A interacts with and stabilizes Gαi2, Gαq, Gα12, but not Gαs, when expressed in COS-7 cells. The protein levels of Gαi2 and Gαq appear to be controlled via the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway, because these Gα subunits undergo polyubiquitination and are stabilized with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. The ubiquitination of Gαi2 and Gαq is suppressed by expression of Ric-8A. The suppression appears to require Ric-8A interaction with these Gα proteins, because the C-terminal truncation of Gαq and Gαi2 completely abrogates their interaction with Ric-8A, their stabilization by Ric-8A, and Ric-8A-mediated inhibition of Gα ubiquitination.
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    • "Finally, substitution of the C-terminal twelve residues of Gαi1 with the corresponding residues of Gαs, a Gα protein that does not bind to Ric-8A [4], abrogated susceptibility to the GEF activity of Ric-8A (Figure 2) but did not impair GTP binding activity. These results are in accord with recent findings that pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP ribosylation at the C-terminus of Gαi1 [8] and that truncation of the twelve Gαi1 C-terminal residues [25] blocks Ric-8A binding and GEF activity. On the other hand, truncation of 25 residues from the N-terminus of Gαi1 did not affect its susceptibility to the GEF activity of Ric-8A (Figure 2). "
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    ABSTRACT: Heterotrimeric G protein α subunits are activated upon exchange of GDP for GTP at the nucleotide binding site of Gα, catalyzed by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). In addition to transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which act on G protein heterotrimers, members of the family cytosolic proteins typified by mammalian Ric-8A are GEFs for Gi/q/12/13-class Gα subunits. Ric-8A binds to Gα•GDP, resulting in the release of GDP. The Ric-8A complex with nucleotide-free Gαi1 is stable, but dissociates upon binding of GTP to Gαi1. To gain insight into the mechanism of Ric-8A-catalyzed GDP release from Gαi1, experiments were conducted to characterize the physical state of nucleotide-free Gαi1 (hereafter referred to as Gαi1[ ]) in solution, both as a monomeric species, and in the complex with Ric-8A. We found that Ric-8A-bound, nucleotide-free Gαi1 is more accessible to trypsinolysis than Gαi1•GDP, but less so than Gαi1[ ] alone. The TROSY-HSQC spectrum of [(15)N]Gαi1[ ] bound to Ric-8A shows considerable loss of peak intensity relative to that of [(15)N]Gαi1•GDP. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange in Gαi1[ ] bound to Ric-8A is 1.5-fold more extensive than in Gαi1•GDP. Differential scanning calorimetry shows that both Ric-8A and Gαi1•GDP undergo cooperative, irreversible unfolding transitions at 47° and 52°, respectively, while nucleotide-free Gαi1 shows a broad, weak transition near 35°. The unfolding transition for Ric-8A:Gαi1[ ] is complex, with a broad transition that peaks at 50°, suggesting that both Ric-8A and Gαi1[ ] are stabilized within the complex, relative to their respective free states. The C-terminus of Gαi1 is shown to be a critical binding element for Ric-8A, as is also the case for GPCRs, suggesting that the two types of GEF might promote nucleotide exchange by similar mechanisms, by acting as chaperones for the unstable and dynamic nucleotide-free state of Gα.
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