The Influence of Passive Stretch and NF-κB Inhibitors on the Morphology of Dystrophic Muscle Fibers

Department of Physiology, Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine, AT Still University, Kirksville, Missouri.
The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology (Impact Factor: 1.54). 01/2011; 294(1):132-44. DOI: 10.1002/ar.21294
Source: PubMed


The triangularis sterni (TS) is an expiratory muscle that is passively stretched during inspiration. The magnitude of passive stretch depends upon the location of individual fibers within the TS muscle, with fibers located more caudally being stretched ∼ 5% to 10% more than fibers in the cephalad region. In the mdx mouse model for muscular dystrophy, the TS exhibits severe pathological alterations that are ameliorated by treatment with inhibitors of the NF-κB pathway. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of passive stretch in vivo on fiber morphology in nondystrophic and mdx TS muscles, and the morphological benefits of treating mdx mice with two distinct NF-κB inhibitors, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Transmission electron microscopy revealed Z-line streaming, hypercontraction, and disassociation of the plasma membrane from the basal lamina in mdx fibers. In both nondystrophic and mdx TS muscles, fiber density was larger in more caudal regions. In comparison with nondystrophic TS, fibers in the mdx TS exhibited substantial reductions in diameter throughout all regions. In vivo treatment with either PDTC or UDCA tended to increase fiber diameter in the middle and decrease fiber diameter in the caudal TS, while reducing centronucleation in the middle region. These results suggest that passive stretch induces hypercontraction and plasma membrane abnormalities in dystrophic muscle, and that differences in the magnitude of passive stretch may influence fiber morphology and the actions of NF-κB inhibitors on dystrophic morphology.

Download full-text


Available from: Cgeorge Carlson, Sep 14, 2015
  • Source
    • "an enhanced susceptibility to denervation - induced atrophy ( Cai et al . , 2004 ; Mourkioti et al . , 2006 ) . This influence of the pathway in mature differentiated fibers is supported by results showing that in vivo treatment of mdx mice with NF - kB inhibitors increases fiber diameter in the middle region of the severely dystrophic TS muscle ( Siegel et al . , 2011 ) . In summary , developing muscle appears to exhibit four distinct developmental stages with respect to NF - kB signaling ."
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway provides morphological and functional benefits for the mdx mouse, a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy characterized by chronic elevations in the nuclear expression of p65, the transactivating component of the NF-κB complex. The purpose of this study was to examine p65 expression in nondystrophic and mdx myotubes using confocal immunofluorescence, and determine whether inhibitors of the NF-κB pathway alter myotube development. Primary cultures of nondystrophic and mdx myotubes had identical levels of nuclear and cytosolic p65 expression and exhibited equivalent responses to TNF-α, thus excluding the hypothesis that the lack of dystrophin is sufficient to induce increases in NF-κB signaling. The NF-κB inhibitors pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and sulfasalazine decreased spontaneous contractile activity and reduced myotube viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Similarly, a vivo-morpholino designed to block translation of murine p65 (m-p65tb-vivomorph1) rapidly abolished spontaneous contractile activity, reduced p65 expression measured by confocal immunofluorescence, and induced cell death in primary cultures of nondystrophic and mdx myotubes. Similar effects on p65 immunofluorescence and cell viability were observed following m-p65tb-vivomorph1 exposure to spontaneously inactive C2C12 myotubes, while exposure to a control scrambled vivo morpholino had no effect. These results indicate a direct role of the NF-κB pathway in myotube development and identify a potential therapeutic limitation to the use of NF-κB inhibitors in treating Duchenne and related muscular dystrophies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/jcp.25085 · 3.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To examine potential mechanisms for the reduced resting membrane potentials (RPs) of mature dystrophic (mdx) muscle fibers, the Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibitor ouabain was added to freshly isolated nondystrophic and mdx fibers. Ouabain produced a 71% smaller depolarization in mdx fibers than in nondystrophic fibers, increased the [Na(+)](i) in nondystrophic fibers by 40%, but had no significant effect on the [Na(+)](i) of mdx fibers, which was approximately double that observed in untreated nondystrophic fibers. Western blots indicated no difference in total and phosphorylated Na(+)-K(+) ATPase catalytic α1 subunit between nondystrophic and mdx muscle. Examination of the effects of the NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) indicated that direct application of the drug slowly hyperpolarized mdx fibers (7 mV in 90 min) but had no effect on nondystrophic fibers. Pretreatment with ouabain abolished this hyperpolarization, and pretreatment with PDTC restored ouabain-induced depolarization and reduced [Na(+)](i). Administration of an NF-κB inhibitor that utilizes a different mechanism for reducing nuclear NF-κB activation, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), also hyperpolarized mdx fibers. These results suggest that in situ Na(+)-K(+) pump activity is depressed in mature dystrophic fibers by NF-κB dependent modulators, and that this reduced pump activity contributes to the weakness characteristic of dystrophic muscle.
    Journal of the neurological sciences 02/2011; 303(1-2):53-60. DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2011.01.015 · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked human disorder in which absence of the protein dystrophin causes degeneration of skeletal and cardiac muscle. For the sake of treatment development, over and above definitive genetic and cell-based therapies, there is considerable interest in drugs that target downstream disease mechanisms. Drug candidates have typically been chosen based on the nature of pathologic lesions and presumed underlying mechanisms and then tested in animal models. Mammalian dystrophinopathies have been characterized in mice (mdx mouse) and dogs (golden retriever muscular dystrophy [GRMD]). Despite promising results in the mdx mouse, some therapies have not shown efficacy in DMD. Although the GRMD model offers a higher hurdle for translation, dogs have primarily been used to test genetic and cellular therapies where there is greater risk. Failed translation of animal studies to DMD raises questions about the propriety of methods and models used to identify drug targets and test efficacy of pharmacologic intervention. The mdx mouse and GRMD dog are genetically homologous to DMD but not necessarily analogous. Subcellular species differences are undoubtedly magnified at the whole-body level in clinical trials. This problem is compounded by disparate cultures in clinical trials and preclinical studies, pointing to a need for greater rigor and transparency in animal experiments. Molecular assays such as mRNA arrays and genome-wide association studies allow identification of genetic drug targets more closely tied to disease pathogenesis. Genes in which polymorphisms have been directly linked to DMD disease progression, as with osteopontin, are particularly attractive targets.
    ILAR journal / National Research Council, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources 06/2014; 55(1):119-49. DOI:10.1093/ilar/ilu011 · 2.39 Impact Factor
Show more