Article

T cells targeting carcinoembryonic antigen can mediate regression of metastatic colorectal cancer but induce severe transient colitis.

Surgery Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
Molecular Therapy (Impact Factor: 6.43). 12/2010; 19(3):620-6. DOI: 10.1038/mt.2010.272
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Autologous T lymphocytes genetically engineered to express a murine T cell receptor (TCR) against human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were administered to three patients with metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to standard treatments. All patients experienced profound decreases in serum CEA levels (74-99%), and one patient had an objective regression of cancer metastatic to the lung and liver. However, a severe transient inflammatory colitis that represented a dose limiting toxicity was induced in all three patients. This report represents the first example of objective regression of metastatic colorectal cancer mediated by adoptive T cell transfer and illustrates the successful use of a TCR, raised in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic mice, against a human tumor associated antigen. It also emphasizes the destructive power of small numbers of highly avid T cells and the limitations of using CEA as a target for cancer immunotherapy.

Full-text

Available from: Nicholas P Restifo, Jun 04, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
139 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The development of cancer is a multi-step process involving the gradual loss of regulation over the growth and functional capabilities of normal cells. Much research has been focused on the numerous cell intrinsic factors that govern this process; however, recent attention has turned to understanding the cell extrinsic factors in the tumor microenvironment that appear equally critical to the progression and treatment of cancer. One critical component of the tumor microenvironment is the immune system and it has become increasingly evident that the immune system plays an integral role in preventing and promoting the development of cancer. Understanding the immune cell types and pathways involved in this process has enabled the development of novel biomarkers for prognosis and accelerated the development of immune-based therapeutics, both of which have the potential to forever change the treatment paradigms for colorectal cancer (CRC). In this review, we discuss the impact of the immune system on the initiation, progression and treatment of cancer, specifically focusing on CRC.
    Journal of gastrointestinal oncology 04/2015; 6(2):208-23. DOI:10.3978/j.issn.2078-6891.2014.077
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This unit describes protocols for developing tumors in mice, including subcutaneous growth, pulmonary metastases of B16 melanoma, and spontaneous melanoma in B-Raf V600E/PTEN deletion transgenic mouse models. Two immunization methods to prevent B16 tumor growth are described using B16.GM-CSF and recombinant vaccinia virus. A therapeutic approach is also included that uses adoptive transfer of tumor antigen-specific T cells. Methods including CTL induction, isolation, testing, and genetic modification of mouse T cells for adoptive transfer by using retrovirus-expressing genes of interest are provided. Additional sections, including growing B16 melanoma, enumerating pulmonary metastases, tumor imaging technique, and use of recombinant viruses for vaccination, are discussed together with safety concerns. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Current protocols in immunology / edited by John E. Coligan ... [et al.] 108:20.1.1-20.1.43. DOI:10.1002/0471142735.im2001s108
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Overcoming immunosuppression and activating a cytotoxic T cell response has the potential to halt the progression of cancer and, in some circumstances, eradicate it. Designing therapeutic interventions that achieve this goal has proven challenging, but now a greater understanding of the complexities of immune responses is beginning to produce some notable breakthroughs. ImmTACs (immune-mobilising monoclonal TCRs against cancer) are a new class of bispecific reagents, based on soluble monoclonal T cell receptors, which have been engineered to possess extremely high affinity for cognate tumour antigen. In this way, ImmTACs overcome the problem of low affinity tumour-specific T cells imposed by thymic selection and provide access to the large number of antigens presented as peptide-HLA complexes. Once bound to tumour cells the anti-CD3 effector end of the ImmTAC drives recruitment of polyclonal T cells to the tumour site, leading to a potent redirected T cell response and tumour cell destruction. Extensive in vitro testing coupled with promising early clinical data has provided an enhanced appreciation of ImmTAC function in vivo and indicates their potential therapeutic benefit in terms of a durable response and ultimately the breaking of T cell tolerance. This review introduces ImmTACs in the context of immunotherapy, and outlines their design, construction and mechanism of action, as well as examining target selection and aspects of preclinical safety testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Molecular Immunology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2015.01.024 · 3.00 Impact Factor

Similar Publications