Single-Molecule Adhesion Forces and Attachment Lifetimes of Myosin-I Phosphoinositide Interactions

William Penn University, Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
Biophysical Journal (Impact Factor: 3.97). 12/2010; 99(12):3916-22. DOI: 10.1016/j.bpj.2010.10.043
Source: PubMed


Phosphoinositides regulate the activities and localization of many cytoskeletal proteins involved in crucial biological processes, including membrane-cytoskeleton adhesion. Yet little is known about the mechanics of protein-phosphoinositide interactions, or about the membrane-attachment mechanics of any peripheral membrane proteins. Myosin-Ic (myo1c) is a molecular motor that links membranes to the cytoskeleton via phosphoinositide binding, so it is particularly important to understand the mechanics of its membrane attachment. We used optical tweezers to measure the strength and attachment lifetime of single myo1c molecules as they bind beads coated with a bilayer of 2% phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and 98% phosphatidylcholine. Adhesion forces measured under ramp-load ranged between 5.5 and 16 pN at loading rates between 250 and 1800 pN/s. Dissociation rates increased linearly with constant force (0.3-2.5 pN), with rates exceeding 360 s(-1) at 2.5 pN. Attachment lifetimes calculated from adhesion force measurements were loading-rate-dependent, suggesting nonadiabatic behavior during pulling. The adhesion forces of myo1c with phosphoinositides are greater than the motors stall forces and are within twofold of the force required to extract a lipid molecule from the membrane. However, attachment durations are short-lived, suggesting that phosphoinositides alone do not provide the mechanical stability required to anchor myo1c to membranes during multiple ATPase cycles.

Download full-text


Available from: Serapion Pyrpassopoulos, Jul 02, 2014
20 Reads

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Moist mucosal epithelial interfaces that are exposed to external environments are dominated by sugar epitopes, some of which (e.g., sialic acids) are involved in host defense. In this study, we determined the abundance and distribution of two sialic acids to assess differences in their availability to an exogenous probe in isolated mucins and mucous gels. We used atomic force microscopy to obtain force maps of human preocular mucous and purified ocular mucins by probing and locating the interactions between tip-tethered lectins Maackia amurensis and Sambucus nigra and their respective receptors, α-2,3 and α-2,6 N-acetylneuraminic (sialic) acids. The rupture force distributions were not affected by neighboring sugar-bearing molecules. Energy contours for both lectin-sugar bonds were fitted to a two-barrier model, suggesting a conformational change before dissociation. In contrast to data from purified mucin molecules, the preocular gels presented numerous large clusters (19,000 ± 4000 nm(2)) of α-2,6 sialic acids, but very few small clusters (2000 ± 500 nm(2)) of α-2,3 epitopes. This indicates that mucins, which are rich in α-2,3 sialic acids, are only partially exposed at the surface of the mucous gel. Microorganisms that recognize α-2,3 sialic acids will encounter only isolated ligands, and the adhesion of other microorganisms will be enhanced by large islands of neighboring α-2,6 sialic acids. We have unveiled an additional level of mucosal surface heterogeneity, specifically in the distribution of pro- and antiadhesive sialic acids that protect underlying epithelia from viruses and bacteria.
    Biophysical Journal 01/2012; 102(1):176-84. DOI:10.1016/j.bpj.2011.08.058 · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: One of the most abundant components of the enterocyte brush border is the actin-based monomeric motor, myosin-1a (Myo1a). Within brush border microvilli, Myo1a carries out a number of critical functions at the interface between membrane and actin cytoskeleton. Proper physiological function of Myo1a depends on its ability to bind to microvillar membrane, an interaction mediated by a C-terminal tail homology 1 (TH1) domain. However, little is known about the mechanistic details of the Myo1a-TH1/membrane interaction. Structure-function analysis of Myo1a-TH1 targeting in epithelial cells revealed that an N-terminal motif conserved among class I myosins and a C-terminal motif unique to Myo1a-TH1 are both required for steady state microvillar enrichment. Purified Myo1a bound to liposomes composed of phosphatidylserine and phosphoinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, with moderate affinity in a charge-dependent manner. Additionally, peptides of the N- and C-terminal regions required for targeting were able to compete with Myo1a for binding to highly charged liposomes in vitro. Single molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy showed that these motifs are also necessary for slowing the membrane detachment rate in cells. Finally, Myo1a-TH1 co-localized with both lactadherin-C2 (a phosphatidylserine-binding protein) and PLCδ1-PH (a phosphoinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-binding protein) in microvilli, but only lactaderin-C2 expression reduced brush border targeting of Myo1a-TH1. Together, our results suggest that Myo1a targeting to microvilli is driven by membrane binding potential that is distributed throughout TH1 rather than localized to a single motif. These data highlight the diversity of mechanisms that enable different class I myosins to target membranes in distinct biological contexts.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2012; 287(16):13104-15. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M111.336313 · 4.57 Impact Factor
Show more