A highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of S-raclopride in rat plasma: application to a pharmacokinetic study in rats.
ABSTRACT A highly sensitive and rapid assay method has been developed and validated for the estimation of S-(-)-raclopride (S-RCP) in rat plasma with liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode. The assay procedure involves a simple liquid-liquid extraction technique for extraction of S-RCP and phenacetin (internal standard, IS) from rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was achieved with 0.2% formic acid : acetonitrile (80:20, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.30 mL/min on a Phenomenex Prodigy C(18) column with a total run time of 4.5 min. The MS/MS ion transitions monitored were 347.2 → 112.1 for S-RCP and 180.1 → 110.1 for IS. Method validation and pre-clinical sample analysis were performed as per FDA guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. The lower limit of quantitation achieved was 0.05 ng/mL and the linearity range was extended from 0.05 to 152 ng/mL in rat plasma. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were 0.23-10.5 and 3.74-7.29%, respectively. This novel method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study of S-RCP in rats.
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ABSTRACT: RATIONALE: Methamphetamine (METH) induces hyperthermia in warm and hypothermia in cool environments. Our first goal was to further study the role of ambient temperature in METH's effect on core temperature in rats. Previously, these effects were primarily demonstrated in high doses; we extended this investigation to the low-dose range (1 mg/kg METH). Our second goal was to identify the role of the D2 receptor in METH's effects in cool ambient temperatures. METHOD: Rats received METH (saline, 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg), raclopride (saline, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 mg/kg), or a combination (all doses of raclopride combined with 10 mg/kg METH). Treatments occurred in ambient temperatures of 18, 24, or 30 °C. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with prior research, 5 and 10 mg/kg METH caused hyperthermia or hypothermia in a dose- and ambient temperature-dependent manner (60 min after METH). In contrast, 1 mg/kg produced similar levels of hyperthermia at all ambient temperatures. These findings suggest that a threshold METH dose exists; below this dose, METH still changes core temperature, but CNS control over temperature regulation is left intact. In our experiments regarding D2 blockade, raclopride decreased METH-induced core temperature at 30 and 24 °C (60 min after METH), consistent with previous findings. We extended these findings by demonstrating that in a cool ambient temperature (18 °C), raclopride pretreatment also lowered the core temperature response to METH. Although the D2 receptor is known to mediate hypothermia, the combination of METH and D2 blockade suggests a complex mediation of the core temperature response, perhaps involving neurotransmitter interactions.Psychopharmacology 06/2013; · 4.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recently, the requirement for a quantitative research method using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to be developed has been discussed. Specifically, the simultaneous quantification of a drug in multiple organs by using whole-body sections could be insightful for the pharmaceutical industry in the study of drug distribution. Frozen whole-body sections were obtained from mice injected with raclopride, a dopamine D2 receptor selective antagonist, and coated with a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) matrix compound. The whole-body sections were then analyzed using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with a MALDI source. The concentration of raclopride in each tissue was determined using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The IMS-based signal intensity of raclopride strongly correlated with the concentration of the drug in the tissue samples (R=0.94; p <0.001) of six different organs. Furthermore, the spatial information obtained by IMS was very similar to that obtained by autoradiography, which is a traditional technique used for the study of drug distribution. This study suggests that IMS enables the quantitative analysis of drug distribution in multiple organs simultaneously. In addition, it enhances ideal drug candidate selection in terms of efficient evaluations.Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 07/2012; 26(13):1549-56. · 2.51 Impact Factor