Oral cavity (mouth) cancer is usually detected earlier and treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Oropharyngeal (throat) cancer may be at an advanced stage when it is found and is treated with radiotherapy. Both surgery and radiotherapy may be associated with disfigurement and decreased ability to eat, drink and talk. Recent advances show that by altering how the radiotherapy is given to patients, improvements in overall survival can be achieved. The new methods of giving radiotherapy are called accelerated fractionation or hyperfractionation. However, they may be associated with an increase in side effects.
"Radiotherapy is one of the main pillars of cancer treatment together with surgery and systemic therapy, mainly chemotherapy. Examples for curative radiotherapy without surgery are prostate (Eckert et al., 2013; Kotecha et al., 2013) and head and neck cancer (Glenny et al., 2010). Preoperative radiotherapy is applied in rectal cancer (Sauer et al., 2012), postoperative treatment in breast cancer (Darby et al.). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The standard treatment of many tumor entities comprises fractionated radiation therapy which applies ionizing radiation to the tumor-bearing target volume. Ionizing radiation causes double-strand breaks in the DNA backbone that result in cell death if the number of DNA double-strand breaks exceeds the DNA repair capacity of the tumor cell. Ionizing radiation reportedly does not only act on the DNA in the nucleus but also on the plasma membrane. In particular, ionizing radiation-induced modifications of ion channels and transporters have been reported. Importantly, these altered transports seem to contribute to the survival of the irradiated tumor cells. The present review article summarizes our current knowledge on the underlying mechanisms and introduces strategies to radiosensitize tumor cells by targeting plasma membrane ion transports.
Frontiers in Physiology 08/2013; 4:212. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2013.00212 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The studies in this review focused on patients with cancers in the oral cavity. These studies have not shown that surgery to remove the lymph nodes in the neck, which appear to be cancer-free, at the same time as the cancer is removed is associated with longer survival, but there is evidence that early neck surgery reduces recurrence of the cancer. Neither is there evidence that removal of all the lymph nodes in the neck results in longer survival compared to selective surgical removal of affected lymph nodes. Although removal of lymph nodes from the neck is associated with significant adverse effects related to appearance and functions such as eating, drinking and speaking, the studies in this review did not measure quality of life.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oral cavity (mouth) cancer is usually detected earlier and treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Oropharyngeal (throat) cancer may be advanced when it is found and is treated with radiotherapy. Both treatments may be associated with disfigurement and decreased ability to eat, drink and talk. Treatment with chemotherapy (drugs which kill cancer cells), in addition to radiotherapy (and surgery where possible) offers prolonged survival. Chemotherapy given at the same time as radiotherapy, is more effective than chemotherapy given before radiotherapy, and may reduce the need for surgery. The improvement in overall survival with the use of chemotherapy is estimated to be between 8% and 22%. The additional side effects of combined chemoradiotherapy (nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, hair loss, and infections) were not measured.
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