Magnetic resonance imaging of brain inflammation using microparticles of iron oxide.
ABSTRACT For molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI), microparticles of iron oxide (MPIO) create potent hypointense contrast effects that extend a distance far exceeding their physical size. The potency of the contrast effects derive from their high iron content and are significantly greater than that of ultra-small particles of iron oxide (USPIO), commonly used for MRI. Due to their size and incompressible nature, MPIO are less susceptible to nonspecific vascular egress or uptake by endothelial cells. Therefore, MPIO may be useful contrast agents for detection of endovascular molecular targets by MRI. This Chapter describes the methodology of a novel, functional MPIO probe targeting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), for detection of acute brain inflammation in vivo, at a time when pathology is undetectable by conventional MRI. Protocols are included for conjugation of MPIO to mouse monoclonal antibodies against VCAM-1 (VCAM-MPIO), the validation of VCAM-MPIO binding specificity to activated endothelial cells in vitro, and the application of VCAM-MPIO for in vivo targeted MRI of acute brain inflammation in mice. This functional molecular imaging tool may potentially accelerate accurate diagnosis of early cerebral vascular inflammation by MRI, and guide specific therapy.
- SourceAvailable from: Martina A Mcateer[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: IL-17 has plays an important role in the multiple sclerosis-like disease experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). We investigated the therapeutic effects of anti-IL-17A in a chronic relapsing EAE ABH mouse model using conventional scoring, quantitative behavioral outcomes, and a novel vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1)-targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent [anti-VCAM-microparticles of iron oxide (MPIO)] to identify conventionally undetectable neuropathology. Mice were administered prophylactic or treatment regimens of anti-IL-17A or IgG and two injections of anti-VCAM-MPIO before undergoing T2*-weighted three-dimensional and gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid T1-weighted MRI. Rotarod, inverted screen, and open field motor function tests were performed, conventional clinical scores calculated, and central IL-17A mRNA expression quantified during acute disease, remission, and relapse. Prophylactic anti-IL-17A prevents acute disease and relapse and is associated with reduced clinical and functional severity. Treatment regimens delay relapse, improve functional scores, and are associated with reduced VCAM-MPIO lesions during remission. No significant alteration was detectable in levels of gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid- or VCAM-MPIO-positive lesions during relapse. Prophylactic and treatment anti-IL-17A were therapeutically effective in chronic relapsing EAE, improving clinical and quantifiable functional outcomes. IL-17A expression seems significant during acute disease but less important chronically. Disease-related immunoneuropathology is more sensitively detected using VCAM-MPIO MRI, which may, therefore, be used to monitor therapy meaningfully.American Journal Of Pathology 04/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor
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- World Molecular Imaging Congress, Dublin, Ireland; 09/2012