Relationship between retrograde coronary blood flow and the extent of no-reflow and infarct size in a porcine ischemia-reperfusion model.
ABSTRACT Recanalization of an infarct-related artery does not predictably reflect tissue reperfusion. We examined the relationship between coronary blood flow (CBF) pattern during reperfusion and infarcted (IA) and no-reflow (NR) area in a porcine ischemia-reperfusion model. The mid-left anterior descending artery of 18 pigs was occluded for 1 h and reperfused for 2 h. CBF during reperfusion was measured with a transit-time ultrasound flowmeter, while systemic arterial and left atrial pressures were monitored. IA and NR were measured with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and thioflavin staining, respectively. In 13 pigs, early systolic retrograde CBF developed within the first 30 min and persisted throughout reperfusion. No retrograde CBF was observed in five pigs. Mean retrograde CBF at 2 h of reperfusion predicted a larger IA (r = 0.71; p = 0.001). Time-to-development of retrograde CBF was inversely related to IA (r = -0.55; p = 0.019) and NR (r = -0.62; p = 0.006). A larger IA (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.24, p = 0.037) and NR (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01-1.18, p = 0.037) predicted the presence of retrograde CBF. Retrograde CBF during recanalization of the infarct-related artery predicts IA and NR and might be used as an index of successful reperfusion at the tissue level.
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ABSTRACT: No-reflow after reperfusion therapy for myocardial infarction is a strong predictor of clinical outcome. But its fate on a long-term basis and potential significance for infarct healing are not yet known. Twenty-nine female Fisher rats were subjected to 60 minutes of coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion. At 4 weeks, 15 survivors were euthanized after measurement of regional myocardial blood flow (radioactive microspheres) and in vivo staining of perfused tissue (0.5 mL 50% Uniperse blue IV). Infarct size (34.3+/-3.4%), scar thickness (1.19+/-0.10 mm), and infarct expansion index (0.51+/-0.04) were assessed from histological sections (2 additional exclusions because of failed occlusion). Regional myocardial blood flow in the reperfused infarct was reduced significantly compared with noninfarcted tissue (1.98+/-0.47 versus 4.55+/-0.86 mL x min(-1) x g(-1), P<0.003, apical slice, and 1.77+/-0.44 versus 5.34+/-0.38 mL x min(-1) x g(-1), P<0.0001, second slice), accompanied by a striking reduction of perfused capillaries within the infarct (n=23+/-4 versus 163+/-8 in the noninfarcted tissue, P<0.0001, microscopically assessed as capillaries containing blue particles per high-power field). Macroscopically, no-reflow areas were visible in 9 of 13 hearts. The number of perfused capillaries within the infarct correlated significantly with infarct expansion index (r=-0.76, P<0.003), infarct thickness (r=0.60, P<0.03), and the ratio of infarct to septum thickness (r=0.74, P<0.004). The no-reflow phenomenon persists for 1 month after reperfusion and predicts worse scar thinning and infarct expansion. Thus, one might shift the "open-artery" hypothesis downstream to an "open-microvessel" hypothesis, relating infarct healing, infarct expansion, and outcome to the completeness of microvascular reperfusion above and beyond epicardial artery patency.Circulation 12/2003; 108(23):2911-7. DOI:10.1161/01.CIR.0000101917.80668.E1 · 14.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is difficult to evaluate the extent of myocardial injury after successful reperfusion following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We investigated the relationship between the coronary flow velocity pattern immediately after reperfusion and pathologic characteristics after myocardial reperfusion injury in dogs. We measured distal coronary flow velocity variables in the left circumflex coronary artery in a canine model of AMI (n = 12) 10 min after the release of a clamp (3-10 h clamp procedure) using a 0.35 mm Doppler guide-wire. Dogs were divided into two groups according to presence or absence of early systolic retrograde coronary flow. Hearts were excised 2 h after reperfusion and examined histopathologically. The clamping time tended to be longer in dogs with early systolic retrograde coronary flow. Neutrophil infiltration was observed in the myocardium of dogs without systolic retrograde flow (n = 9); hemorrhage was rarely detectable and the myocardium maintained a bundle form. However, the bundle form of the myocardium became rough, and the severity of the incidence of hemorrhage tended to increase as the ratio of the diastolic coronary flow velocity to systolic velocity (DSVR) decreased. Vacuolar degeneration of the myocardium was also observed in hearts with a relatively low DSVR. In the group with systolic retrograde flow (n = 3), hearts were characterized by coagulation necrosis, marked vacuolar degeneration of the myocardium and diffusely distributed red cells in the intermyocytes. Systolic antegrade flow velocity was much reduced in this group, resulting in a markedly increased DSVR. These findings appeared to be related to severe myocardial damage. Coronary flow velocity patterns immediately after successful reperfusion appear to reflect the pathologic characteristics of the reperfused myocardium in dogs with AMI.Coronary Artery Disease 02/1998; 9(1):21-7. DOI:10.1097/00019501-199809010-00004 · 1.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study attempted 1) to assess the utility of rest measurements of intracoronary blood flow velocity for the physiologic assessment of coronary stenoses before and after right coronary artery angioplasty, and 2) to compare the phasic flow pattern in the right coronary artery proper with the phasic flow pattern in its major branches to the left ventricle.Background. Previous investigations have demonstrated that a reduction in distal blood flow velocity and a loss of distal diastolic predominant flow are characteristic of physiologically significant stenoses and that these indexes normalize after successful coronary artery dilation. However, these studies were predominantly performed in the left coronary artery. The utility of monitoring rest velocity variables during angioplasty of the right coronary artery has not been studied.Methods. We studied 20 patients undergoing angioplasty of the right coronary artery with use of a Doppler angioplasty guide wire.Results. Values were expressed as the mean value ± 1 SD. The rest average peak velocity did not decrease distal to angiographically significant right coronary artery stenoses (23.3 ± 9.4 cm/s proximal vs. 20.2 ± 11.1 cm/s distal, p = 0.20). The proximal/ distal velocity ratio was 1.4 ± 0.9 before angioplasty and did not significantly decrease after angioplasty (p = 0.58). This study had a 99.4% power to detect a difference between proximal and distal average peak velocity. There was no relation between percent diameter stenosis and proximal/distal velocity ratios (r = 0.15, p = 0.55). Diastolic predominant flow was not observed in the proximal or distal right coronary artery. However, after angioplasty, diastolic predominant flow was observed in the posterolateral and posterior descending coronary arteries.Conclusions. Rest phasic Doppler flow velocity indexes are not useful for evaluating stenoses in the right coronary artery proper before or after angioplasty. In contrast to the right coronary artery proper, diastolic predominant flow is observed in the posterior descending and posterolateral coronary arteries. The utility of measuring hyperemic Doppler flow velocity indexes, such as distal coronary flow reserve, for assessing right coronary artery stenoses merits further investigation.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 11/1994; 24(4-24):1012-1017. DOI:10.1016/0735-1097(94)90863-X · 15.34 Impact Factor