Cocaine and Cardiovascular Complications
ABSTRACT Thirty-six million Americans older than 12 years of age have used cocaine in their lifetime. Cocaine abuse is on the rise and it brings the challenges to treat the complication associated with it, particularly cardiovascular complications. As the understanding of pathophysiology of cocaine-associated cardiovascular complications is advancing, the treatment modalities are also modifying. In this article, common cardiovascular complications associated with acute or chronic cocaine use and their treatment are reviewed.
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ABSTRACT: Background. Perioperative management of cocaine-abusing patients scheduled for elective surgery varies widely based on individual anecdotes and personal experience. Methods. Chiefs of the anesthesia departments in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health system were surveyed to estimate how often they encounter surgical patients with cocaine use. Respondents were asked about their screening criteria, timing of screening, action resulting from positive screening, and if they have a formal policy for management of these patients. Interest in the development of VA guidelines for the perioperative management of patients with a history of cocaine use was also queried. Results. 172 VA anesthesia departments' chiefs were surveyed. Response rate was 62%. Over half of the facilities see cocaine-abusing patients at least once a week (52%). Two thirds of respondents canceled or delayed patients with a positive screen regardless of clinical symptoms. Only eleven facilities (10.6%) have a formal policy. The majority of facilities (80%) thought that having formal guidelines for perioperative management of cocaine-abusing patients would be helpful to some extent. Results. 172 VA anesthesia departments' chiefs were surveyed. Response rate was 62%. Over half of the facilities see cocaine-abusing patients at least once a week (52%). Two thirds of respondents canceled or delayed patients with a positive screen regardless of clinical symptoms. Only eleven facilities (10.6%) have a formal policy. The majority of facilities (80%) thought that having formal guidelines for perioperative management of cocaine-abusing patients would be helpful to some extent. Conclusions. There is a general consensus that formal guidelines would be helpful. Further studies are needed to help formulate evidence-based guidelines for managing patients screening positive for cocaine prior to elective surgery.Anesthesiology Research and Practice 08/2013; 2013:149892. DOI:10.1155/2013/149892
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ABSTRACT: Rim impingement lesions vary based on the underlying pathology. In general, rim impingement occurs with anterosuperior overhang, coxa profunda, protrusio acetabuli, and acetabular retroversion. The method for addressing these pathologic lesions depends on location and size of the impingement lesion, the underlying pathology, and the degree of labral damage. The ultimate goals of surgical management include accurate localization of the rim impingement lesion, adequate removal of the bony impingement lesion, and preservation and refixation of the viable labral tissue. If the surgeon feels that these goals cannot be accomplished safely and effectively by arthroscopic methods, alternative procedures should be considered.Clinics in sports medicine 04/2011; 30(2):379-90. DOI:10.1016/j.csm.2011.01.002 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Question In my practice several patients have struggled with cocaine abuse during their pregnancies. One woman, now postpartum, wants to breastfeed her infant. Despite being abstinent for the final few months of her pregnancy, I am concerned about the potential adverse effects on her child if she happens to relapse. What is the current evidence about the risks of cocaine exposure during breastfeeding? Answer Given the substantial benefits of breastfeeding for infant health and development, there is no reason for mothers who previously abused cocaine to avoid breastfeeding. It is important for the health care team to counsel patients both on the serious potential risks of cocaine exposure for babies and on the benefits of breastfeeding, to allow for an informed choice. Additionally, attempts should be made to estimate maternal commitment to breastfeeding and discontinuation of cocaine use, and to offer addiction counseling to mitigate the potential risks of infant cocaine exposure. It is paramount to minimize the risk to the infant, which would certainly include mothers ceasing use of cocaine while breastfeeding. For mothers who elect to breastfeed and use cocaine intermittently, breastfeeding should be delayed sufficiently after cocaine use to allow for drug elimination (approximately 24 hours).Canadian family physician Medecin de famille canadien 11/2012; 58(11):1218-1219. · 1.40 Impact Factor