Differential gene expression in anterior pituitary glands from anestrous and cycling postpartum beef cows.
ABSTRACT Oligonucleotide microarrays (GeneChip Bovine Genome Arrays, Affymetrix Inc., Santa Clara, CA) were used to evaluate gene expression profiles in anterior pituitary glands collected from 4 anestrous and 4 cycling postpartum primiparous beef cows to provide insight into genes associated with transition from an anestrous to a cycling status. Tissues were collected 40 to 61 d after calving from anestrous cows and from cyclic cows between d 7 and 13 of the estrous cycle (luteal phase) from d 54 to 77 after calving. Hybridization signals were normalized across arrays, and genes with mean differences in expression that were at least 1.5-fold apart and with a minimum difference in mean signal intensity of 10 were compared. Based on these criteria, 47 transcripts were increased (P < 0.025) and 31 transcripts were decreased (P < 0.025) in pituitary gland tissue from cycling compared with anestrous cows. Few transcripts identified in this analysis were associated previously with reproductive function. To provide greater detail on the influence that stage of the estrous cycle (i.e., collection during the luteal phase) might have on the differences detected in gene expression, quantitative real-time PCR was used to compare gene expression in anterior pituitaries of anestrous cows with an additional independent set of anterior pituitary glands collected at 4 different stages of the estrous cycle: 0.5 to 2 d (n = 9), 5 to 6.5 d (n = 5), 11.4 to 13.7 d (n = 5), and 17.9 to 19 d (n = 6) after the onset of estrus. Gastrin-releasing peptide, the gene that exhibited the largest fold increase in expression in the microarray experiment, and IGFBP3 mRNA were expressed at greater (P < 0.004) amounts in samples from the different stages of the estrous cycle than in samples from anestrous cows. In addition, expression of IGFBP3 mRNA was proportional to serum progesterone concentrations throughout the estrous cycle (P < 0.05). Expression of versican mRNA was decreased (P = 0.03) in samples from the different stages of the estrous cycle compared with anestrous cow samples. Results identified numerous genes that may be involved in the transition from anestrous to cycling status, providing novel insight into mechanisms regulating reproductive function.
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ABSTRACT: Microarray development changed the way biologists approach the holistic study of cells and tissues. In dairy cattle biosciences, the application of omics technology, from spotted microarrays to next-generation sequencing and proteomics, has grown steadily during the past 10 years. Omics has found application in fields such as dairy cattle nutritional physiology, reproduction, and immunology. Generating biologically meaningful data from omics studies relies on bioinformatics tools. Both are key components of the systems physiology toolbox, which allows study of the interactions between a condition (e.g., nutrition, physiological state) with tissue gene/protein expression and the associated changes in biological functions. The nature of physiologic and metabolic adaptations in dairy cattle at any stage of the life cycle is multifaceted, involves multiple tissues, and is dynamic, e.g., the transition from late-pregnancy to lactation. Application of integrative systems physiology in periparturient dairy cattl...Annual Review of Animal Biosciences. 04/2012; 1(1).
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ABSTRACT: Renalase was initially identified in human kidney as a soluble monoamine oxidase. Here we show that renalase is predominantly expressed in reproductive/steroidogenic systems, with particularly substantial expression in oocytes, granulosa, interstitial and luteal cells of ovary, spermatogenic cells of testis, and cortex of adrenal gland, suggesting its function(s) in maturation of germ cells and steroid hormone regulation. Renalase expression increases in testes and ovaries as mice develop and its expression is further enhanced in the ovaries of pregnant mice, indicating an activity of renalase in reproduction. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist, cetrorelix, repressed renalase expression in mice ovaries and testes, suggesting that steroids regulate renalase expression. Leptin is an effector and modulator of steroid hormones and reproduction. Surprisingly, knockout of leptin causes a dramatic increase of renalase expression in mice testes. Taken together, our results suggest that reproductive/steroidogenic systems are also the sources for renalase secretion and renalase may play a critical role in reproduction and hormone regulation. This provides a novel insight into understanding the function of renalase.Molecular Biology Reports 12/2012; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reproduction is of significant economic importance in dairy cattle. Improved understanding of mechanisms that control estrous behavior and other reproduction traits could help in developing strategies to improve and/or monitor these traits. The objective of this study was to predict and rank genes and processes in brain areas and pituitary involved in reproductive traits in cattle using information derived from 3 different data sources: gene expression; protein-protein interactions; and literature. We identified 59, 89, 53, 23, and 71 genes in bovine amygdala, dorsal hypothalamus, hippocampus, pituitary, and ventral hypothalamus, respectively, potentially involved in processes underlying estrus and estrous behavior. Functional annotation of the candidate genes points to a number of tissue specific processes of which the neurotransmitter/ion channel/synapse" process in the amygdala, "steroid hormone receptor activity/ion binding" in the pituitary, "extracellular region" in the ventral hypothalamus and "positive regulation of transcription/ metabolic process" in the dorsal hypothalamus are most prominent. The regulation of the functional processes in the various tissues operate at different biological levels, including transcriptional, post-transcriptional, extracellular- and inter-cellular signaling levels.Physiological Genomics 04/2013; · 2.81 Impact Factor