Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense sp. nov., isolated from healthy infant faeces.
ABSTRACT Strains HM2-1 and HM2-2(T) were isolated from the faeces of a healthy infant and were characterized by determining their phenotypic and biochemical features and phylogenetic positions based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. They were Gram-positive, obligately anaerobic, non-spore-forming, non-gas-producing, and catalase-negative non-motile rods. They did not grow at 15 or 45 °C in anaerobic bacterial culture medium, and their DNA G+C content was in the range 56-59 mol%. In enzyme activity tests, strains HM2-1 and HM2-2(T) were positive for α/β-galactosidases and α/β-glucosidases but negative for β-glucuronidase and cystine arylamidase. An analysis of the cell-wall composition of strains HM2-1 and HM2-2(T) revealed the presence of glutamic acid, alanine and lysine. The presence of fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase shows that isolates HM2-1 and HM2-2(T) are members of the genus Bifidobacterium. These two isolates belong to the same species of the genus Bifidobacterium. Strain HM2-2(T) was found to be related to Bifidobacterium catenulatum JCM 1194(T) (97.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence identity: 1480/1520 bp), Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum JCM 1200(T) (97.2 %: 1472/1514 bp), Bifidobacterium dentium ATCC 27534(T) (96.7 %: 1459/1509 bp) and Bifidobacterium angulatum ATCC 27535(T) (96.5 %: 1462/1515 bp). The predominant cellular fatty acids of strains HM2-1 and HM2-2(T) were 16 : 0 and 18 : 1ω9c, with proportions greater than 18 % of the total. Phylogenetic analyses involving phenotypic characterization, DNA-DNA hybridization and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing proves that the strains represent a novel species of the genus Bifidobacterium, for which the name Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HM2-2(T) ( = JCM 15439(T) = DSM 21854(T)).
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ABSTRACT: Background Bifidobacteria is one of the major gut commensal groups found in infants. Their colonization is commonly associated with beneficial effects to the host through mechanisms like niche occupation and nutrient competition against pathogenic bacteria. Iron is an essential element necessary for most microorganisms, including bifidobacteria and efficient competition for this micronutrient is linked to proliferation and persistence. For this research we hypothesized that bifidobacteria in the gut of iron deficient infants can efficiently sequester iron. The aim of the present study was to isolate bifidobacteria in fecal samples of iron deficient Kenyan infants and to characterize siderophore production and iron internalization capacity.ResultsFifty-six bifidobacterial strains were isolated by streaking twenty-eight stool samples from Kenyan infants, in enrichment media. To target strains with high iron sequestration mechanisms, a strong iron chelator 2,2-dipyridyl was supplemented to the agar media. Bifidobacterial isolates were first identified to species level by 16S rRNA sequencing, yielding B. bifidum (19 isolates), B. longum (15), B. breve (11), B. kashiwanohense (7), B. pseudolongum (3) and B. pseudocatenulatum (1). While most isolated bifidobacterial species are commonly encountered in the infantile gut, B. kashiwanohense was not frequently reported in infant feces. Thirty strains from culture collections and 56 isolates were characterized for their siderophore production, tested by the CAS assay. Siderophore activity ranged from 3 to 89% siderophore units, with 35 strains (41%) exhibiting high siderophore activity, and 31 (36%) and 20 (23%) showing intermediate or low activity. The amount of internalized iron of 60 bifidobacteria strains selected for their siderophore activity, was in a broad range from 8 to118 ¿M Fe. Four strains, B. pseudolongum PV8-2, B. kashiwanohense PV20-2, B. bifidum PV28-2a and B. longum PV5-1 isolated from infant stool samples were selected for both high siderophore activity and iron internalization.ConclusionsA broad diversity of bifidobacteria were isolated in infant stools using iron limited conditions, with some strains exhibiting high iron sequestration properties. The ability of bifidobacteria to efficiently utilize iron sequestration mechanism such as siderophore production and iron internalization may confer an ecological advantage and be the basis for enhanced competition against enteropathogens.BMC Microbiology 01/2015; 15(1):3. DOI:10.1186/s12866-014-0334-z · 2.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense strain PV20-2, an infant feces isolate, was determined using single-molecule real-time sequencing (SMRT). Hierarchical genome assembly resulted in a completely assembled genome of 2,370,978 bp. The B. kashiwanohense PV20-2 genome is the first completely sequenced and assembled genome of the species. Copyright © 2015 Vazquez-Gutierrez et al.Genome Announcements 01/2015; 3(1). DOI:10.1128/genomeA.01467-14
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ABSTRACT: The Bifidobacterium genus currently encompasses 48 recognized taxa, which have been isolated from different ecosystems. However, the current phylogeny of bifidobacteria is hampered by the relative paucity of genotypic data. Here, we re-assessed the taxonomy of this bacterial genus using genome-based approaches, which highlighted that of the previous taxonomic view of bifidobacteria contained several inconsistencies. In particular, high levels of genetic relatedness were shown to exist between particular Bifidobacterium taxa, which would not justify their status as separate species. The results presented are here based on Average Nucleotide Identity analysis involving the genome sequences for each type strain of the 48 bifidobacterial taxa, as well as phylogenetic comparative analysis of the predicted core genome of the Bifidobacterium genus. This study highlights that the availability of complete genome sequences allows the reconstruction of a more robust bifidobacterial phylogeny compared to that obtained from a single gene-based sequence comparison, thus discouraging the assignment of a new or separate bifidobacterial taxon without such a genome-based validation.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 08/2014; 80(20). DOI:10.1128/AEM.02004-14 · 3.95 Impact Factor