Myocardial Lineage Development

Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla CA 92093, USA.
Circulation Research (Impact Factor: 11.02). 12/2010; 107(12):1428-44. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.110.227405
Source: PubMed


The myocardium of the heart is composed of multiple highly specialized myocardial lineages, including those of the ventricular and atrial myocardium, and the specialized conduction system. Specification and maturation of each of these lineages during heart development is a highly ordered, ongoing process involving multiple signaling pathways and their intersection with transcriptional regulatory networks. Here, we attempt to summarize and compare much of what we know about specification and maturation of myocardial lineages from studies in several different vertebrate model systems. To date, most research has focused on early specification, and although there is still more to learn about early specification, less is known about factors that promote subsequent maturation of myocardial lineages required to build the functioning adult heart.

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    • "During vertebrate development, the heart tube is formed by the fusion of two populations of myocardial precursors, which migrate from bilateral regions of embryos. This migration requires proper proliferation, differentiation and epithelial organization of myocardial cells, as well as an environment conducive to their migration (Bakkers, 2011; Evans et al., 2010; Staudt and Stainier, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Coordination between the endoderm and adjacent cardiac mesoderm is crucial for heart development. We previously showed that myocardial migration is promoted by convergent movement of the endoderm, which itself is controlled by the S1pr2/Gα13 signaling pathway, but it remains unclear how the movements of the two tissues is coordinated. Here, we image live and fixed embryos to follow these movements, revealing previously unappreciated details of strikingly complex and dynamic associations between the endoderm and myocardial precursors. We found that during segmentation the endoderm underwent three distinct phases of movement relative to the midline: rapid convergence, little convergence and slight expansion. During these periods, the myocardial cells exhibited different stage-dependent migratory modes: co-migration with the endoderm, movement from the dorsal to the ventral side of the endoderm (subduction) and migration independent of endoderm convergence. We also found that defects in S1pr2/Gα13-mediated endodermal convergence affected all three modes of myocardial cell migration, probably due to the disruption of fibronectin assembly around the myocardial cells and consequent disorganization of the myocardial epithelium. Moreover, we found that additional cell types within the anterior lateral plate mesoderm (ALPM) also underwent subduction, and that this movement likewise depended on endoderm convergence. Our study delineates for the first time the details of the intricate interplay between the endoderm and ALPM during embryogenesis, highlighting why endoderm movement is essential for heart development, and thus potential underpinnings of congenital heart disease. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
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    • "The cardiogenic potential of the pharyngeal mesoderm has been revealed over the last few years (Black 2007; Buckingham et al. 2005; Dyer and Kirby 2009; Evans et al. 2010; Tzahor and Evans 2011; Vincent and Buckingham 2010). Pharyngeal mesoderm explants dissected from early chick embryos undergo cardiogenesis in culture (Tzahor and Lassar 2001) and in vivo (Nathan et al. 2008; Rana et al. 2007; Tirosh-Finkel et al. 2006). "

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    • "Of interest, canonical Wnt signaling blocks differentiation of SHF progenitors. Isl1 + cells in which b-catenin is specifically stabilized down-regulate the gene encoding Myocardin, which promotes myocardial and smooth muscle differentiation in concert with serum response factor (SRF) (Evans et al, 2010). "
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