Genome Evolution in Plant Pathogens

Division of Plant Industry, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Canberra, ACT 2614, Australia.
Science (Impact Factor: 31.48). 12/2010; 330(6010):1486-7. DOI: 10.1126/science.1200245
Source: PubMed
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Available from: Peter N Dodds, Aug 09, 2015
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    • "The biotrophs are entirely dependent upon living host and keep their host alive throughout their life cycle, the hemibiotrophs keep host alive for some period and then kill them, and the necrotrophs feed on host plants by killing them. The evolution of such lifestyles in fi lamentous pathogens was correlated with gain/loss of genes by comparative analysis (Dodds 2010 ) . Molecular plant pathologists have broadly classi fi ed plant disease resistance operating in natural habitats into two categories: the host resistance and the nonhost resistance (Heath 2000 ) . "
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    ABSTRACT: Alleviating the crop loss due to biotic stress is the primary aim of plant biologists to achieve sustainable evergreen revolution in order to feed rapidly growing population. In nature, continuous evolution of plants while interacting with pathogens has generated a complex immune system that consists of preformed barriers and induced responses. The induced responses are further subdivided based upon the recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns and effectors produced by pathogens; however, overlap exists between the downstream signaling pathways. In last decade, great deal of information about molecular aspects of plant–pathogen interactions has been generated which can be utilized for improving crops through genetic manipulation. Plant breeding has helped in the isolation of species-specific resistance components (R genes) from many plants. The molecular breeding techniques have also helped in pyramiding several components to a single variety, especially QTLs responsible for plant resistance, high yield, and nutritional quality. The identification of nonhost components in model plants and incorporation of genetically modified crops in our cropping system have raised hopes that nonhost resistance can be utilized for generating broad-spectrum pathogen tolerance breaking the barriers of species level resistance. This chapter describes the recent molecular aspects of plant–pathogen interactions focusing on the nonhost resistance components. Additionally, strategies like specific regulation of induced defense responses, manipulation of susceptibility factors, and host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) are discussed. The development of GM crops using such strategies will help in generating higher yields against pathogen infestations
    Plant Acclimation to Environmental Stress, Edited by Narendra Tuteja, Sarvajeet Singh Gill, 01/2013: chapter Chapter 16 Plant Pathogen Interactions: Crop Improvement Under Adverse Conditions: pages 433-459; Springer Science+Business Media New York., ISBN: 978-1-4614-5000-9, 978-1-4614-5001-6 (eBook)
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    • "In contrast to the relatively small set of effectors produced by bacteria, recent advances through nextgeneration sequencing and large-scale proteome analysis have now identified hundreds of proteins that are secreted by biotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungi (Dean et al., 2005; Kamper et al., 2006; Yoshida et al., 2009; Dodds, 2010; Spanu et al., 2010; Duplessis et al., 2011). Typically, these secreted proteins have low sequence homology to any known protein and there is little understanding of their function. "
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    ABSTRACT: Biotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungi are successful groups of plant pathogens that require living plant tissue to survive and complete their life cycle. Members of these groups include the rust fungi and powdery mildews and species in the Ustilago, Cladosporium and Magnaporthe genera. Collectively, they represent some of the most destructive plant parasites, causing huge economic losses and threatening global food security. During plant infection, pathogens synthesize and secrete effector proteins, some of which are translocated into the plant cytosol where they can alter the host's response to the invading pathogen. In a successful infection, pathogen effectors facilitate suppression of the plant's immune system and orchestrate the reprogramming of the infected tissue so that it becomes a source of nutrients that are required by the pathogen to support its growth and development. This review summarizes our current understanding of the function of fungal effectors in infection.
    Cellular Microbiology 08/2011; 13(12):1849-57. DOI:10.1111/j.1462-5822.2011.01665.x · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic resistance is the most effective and sustainable approach to the control of plant pathogens that are a major constraint to agriculture worldwide. In soybean, three dominant R genes, i.e., Rsv1, Rsv3 and Rsv4, have been identified and deployed against Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) with strain-specificities. Molecular identification of virulent determinants of SMV on these resistance genes will provide essential information for the proper utilization of these resistance genes to protect soybean against SMV, and advance knowledge of virus-host interactions in general. To study the gain and loss of SMV virulence on all the three resistance loci, SMV strains G7 and two G2 isolates L and LRB were used as parental viruses. SMV chimeras and mutants were created by partial genome swapping and point mutagenesis and then assessed for virulence on soybean cultivars PI96983 (Rsv1), L-29 (Rsv3), V94-5152 (Rsv4) and Williams 82 (rsv). It was found that P3 played an essential role in virulence determination on all three resistance loci and CI was required for virulence on Rsv1- and Rsv3-genotype soybeans. In addition, essential mutations in HC-Pro were also required for the gain of virulence on Rsv1-genotype soybean. To our best knowledge, this is the first report that CI and P3 are involved in virulence on Rsv1- and Rsv3-mediated resistance, respectively. Multiple viral proteins, i.e., HC-Pro, P3 and CI, are involved in virulence on the three resistance loci and simultaneous mutations at essential positions of different viral proteins are required for an avirulent SMV strain to gain virulence on all three resistance loci. The likelihood of such mutations occurring naturally and concurrently on multiple viral proteins is low. Thus, incorporation of all three resistance genes in a soybean cultivar through gene pyramiding may provide durable resistance to SMV.
    PLoS ONE 11/2011; 6(11):e28342. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0028342 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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