Overexpression of androgen receptors in target musculature confers androgen sensitivity to motoneuron dendrites.
ABSTRACT The dendritic arbors of spinal motoneurons are dynamically regulated by a variety of factors, and several lines of evidence indicate that trophic interactions with the target musculature are of central importance. In highly androgen-sensitive motoneuron populations, androgens are thought to regulate motoneuron dendrites through their action at the receptor-enriched target musculature. Using rats transgenically modified to overexpress androgen receptor (AR) in skeletal muscle, we directly tested the hypothesis that the enhanced expression of AR in the target musculature can underlie the androgenic regulation of motoneuron dendritic morphology. The morphology of motoneurons innervating the quadriceps muscle was examined in wild-type (WT) rats as well as in rats that had been transgenically modified to overexpress ARs in their skeletal musculature. Motoneurons innervating the vastus lateralis muscle of the quadriceps in gonadally intact male rats, and castrated males with or without androgen replacement, were labeled with cholera toxin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase, and dendritic arbors were reconstructed in three dimensions. In WT rats, quadriceps motoneuron dendrites were insensitive to hormonal manipulation. In contrast, quadriceps motoneuron dendrites in gonadally intact transgenic males were larger than those of WT males. Furthermore, overexpression of ARs in the quadriceps muscle resulted in androgen sensitivity in dendrites, with substantial reductions in dendritic length occurring after castration; this reduction was prevented with testosterone replacement. Thus, it appears that the androgen sensitivity of motoneuron dendrites is conferred indirectly via the enrichment of ARs in the musculature.
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ABSTRACT: Neurotrophic factors and steroid hormones interact to regulate a variety of neuronal processes such as neurite outgrowth, differentiation, and neuroprotection. The coexpression of steroid hormone and neurotrophin receptor mRNAs and proteins, as well as their reciprocal regulation provides the necessary substrates for such interactions to occur. This review will focus on androgen brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) interactions in the spinal cord, describing androgen regulation of BDNF in neuromuscular systems following castration, androgen manipulation, and injury. Androgens interact with BDNF during development to regulate normally-occurring motoneuron death, and in adulthood, androgen–BDNF interactions are involved in the maintenance of several features of neuromuscular systems. Androgens regulate BDNF and trkB expression in spinal motoneurons. Androgens also regulate BDNF levels in the target musculature, and androgenic action at the muscle regulates BDNF levels in motoneurons. These interactions have important implications for the maintenance of motoneuron morphology. Finally, androgens interact with BDNF after injury, influencing soma size, dendritic morphology, and axon regeneration. Together, these findings provide further insight into the development and maintenance of neuromuscular systems and have implications for the neurotherapeutic/neuroprotective roles of androgens and trophic factors in the treatment of motoneuron disease and recovery from injury.Neuroscience 10/2012; 239:103–114. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Commitment of differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs) toward the various lineages is influenced by many factors, including androgens. However, the mechanisms underlying proteotoxic stress conferred by androgen receptor (AR) actions on embryonic cell fate remains unclear. Here we show that mouse ESCs display stress-related cellular phenotypes in response to androgens during early phase of differentiation. Androgen induced a significant increase in the percentage of ESCs and embryoid bodies with the intranuclear and juxtanuclear AR inclusions, which were colocalized with the E3 ubiquitin ligase, C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein. Caspase-3 activity corresponded with AR expression, was enhanced in cells engaged more differentiation phenotypes. Androgen-mediated accumulation of AR aggregates exacerbated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and rendered ESCs susceptible to apoptosis. Increasing expression levels of the ER chaperones, GRP78/BiP and GRP94, as well as ER stress markers, such as ATF6, phosphorylated PERK, GADD153/CHOP and spliced XBP-1 mRNA, were dramatically elevated in ESCs overexpressing AR. We found that androgen induced GRP78/BiP to dissociate from ATF6, and act as an AR-interacting protein, which was recruited into AR inclusions in ESCs. GRP78/BiP was also colocalized with AR inclusions in the cells of spinal bulbar muscular atrophy transgenic mouse model. Overexpression of GRP78/BiP suppressed ubiquitination of AR aggregates and ameliorated the misfolded AR-mediated cytopathology in ESCs, whereas knockdown of GRP78/BiP increased the accumulation of AR aggregates and significantly higher levels of caspase-3 activity and cell apoptosis. These results generate novel insight into how ESCs respond to stress induced by misfolded AR proteins and identify GRP78/BiP as a novel regulator of the AR protein quality control.Cell Death & Disease 01/2013; 4:e607. · 6.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The spinal cord of rats contains the sexually dimorphic motoneurons of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB). In males, SNB dendrites fail to grow after castration, but androgen or estrogen treatment supports dendritic growth in castrated males. Estrogenic support of SNB dendrite growth is mediated by estrogen receptors (ER) in the target muscle. ERα expression in cells lacking a basal lamina (referred to as "extra-muscle fiber cells") of the SNB target musculature coincides with the period of estrogen-dependent SNB dendrite growth. In the SNB target muscle, extra-muscle fiber ERα expression declines with age and is typically absent after postnatal (P) day 21 (P21). Given that estradiol downregulates ERα in skeletal muscle, we tested the hypothesis that depleting gonadal hormones would prevent the postnatal decline in ERα expression in the SNB target musculature. We castrated male rats at P7 and assessed ERα immunolabeling at P21; ERα expression was significantly greater in castrated males compared with normal animals. Because ERα expression in SNB target muscles mediates estrogen-dependent SNB dendrogenesis, we further hypothesized that the castration-induced increase in muscle ERα would heighten the estrogen sensitivity of SNB dendrites. Male rats were castrated at P7 and treated with estradiol from P21 to P28; estradiol treatment in castrates resulted in dendritic hypertrophy in SNB motoneurons compared with normal males. We conclude that early castration results in an increase in ERα expression in the SNB target muscle, and this upregulation of ERα supports estrogen sensitivity of SNB dendrites, allowing for hypermasculinization of SNB dendritic arbors. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2013.Developmental Neurobiology 08/2013; · 4.42 Impact Factor