Resting oscillatory cortico-subthalamic connectivity in patients with Parkinson's disease.
ABSTRACT Both phenotype and treatment response vary in patients with Parkinson's disease. Anatomical and functional imaging studies suggest that individual symptoms may represent malfunction of different segregated networks running in parallel through the basal ganglia. In this study, we use a newly described, electrophysiological method to describe cortico-subthalamic networks in humans. We performed combined magnetoencephalographic and subthalamic local field potential recordings in thirteen patients with Parkinson's disease at rest. Two spatially and spectrally separated networks were identified. A temporoparietal-brainstem network was coherent with the subthalamic nucleus in the alpha (7-13 Hz) band, whilst a predominantly frontal network was coherent in the beta (15-35 Hz) band. Dopaminergic medication modulated the resting beta network, by increasing beta coherence between the subthalamic region and prefrontal cortex. Subthalamic activity was predominantly led by activity in the cortex in both frequency bands. The cortical topography and frequencies involved in the alpha and beta networks suggest that these networks may be involved in attentional and executive, particularly motor planning, processes, respectively.
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ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease is characterised by excessive subcortical beta oscillations. However, little is known about the functional connectivity of the two basal ganglia across hemispheres and specifically the role beta plays in this. We recorded local field potentials from the subthalamic nucleus bilaterally in 23 subjects with Parkinson's disease at rest, on and off medication. We found suppression of low beta power in response to levodopa (t22 = -4.4, p<0.001). There was significant coherence between the two sides in the beta range in 19 of the subjects. Coherence was selectively attenuated in the low beta range following levodopa (t22 = -2.7; p = 0.01). We also separately analysed amplitude co-modulation and phase synchronisation in the beta band and found significant amplitude co-modulation and phase locking values in 17 and 16 subjects respectively, off medication. There was a dissociable effect of levodopa on these measures, with a significant suppression only in low beta phase locking value (t22 = -2.8, p = 0.01) and not amplitude co-modulation. The absolute mean values of amplitude co-modulation (0.40±0.03) and phase synchronisation (0.29±0.02) off medication were, however, relatively low, suggesting that the two basal ganglia networks may have to be approached separately with independent sensing and stimulation during adaptive deep brain stimulation. In addition, our findings highlight the functional distinction between the lower and upper beta frequency ranges and between amplitude co-modulation and phase synchronization across subthalamic nuclei.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e82762. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cortical oscillatory signals of single and double tremor frequencies act together to cause tremor in the peripheral limbs of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). But the corticospinal pathway that transmits the tremor signals has not been clarified, and how alternating bursts of antagonistic muscle activations are generated from the cortical oscillatory signals is not well understood. This paper investigates the plausible role of propriospinal neurons (PN) in C3-C4 in transmitting the cortical oscillatory signals to peripheral muscles. Kinematics data and surface electromyogram (EMG) of tremor in forearm were collected from PD patients. A PN network model was constructed based on known neurophysiological connections of PN. The cortical efferent signal of double tremor frequencies were integrated at the PN network, whose outputs drove the muscles of a virtual arm (VA) model to simulate tremor behaviors. The cortical efferent signal of single tremor frequency actuated muscle spindles. By comparing tremor data of PD patients and the results of model simulation, we examined two hypotheses regarding the corticospinal transmission of oscillatory signals in Parkinsonian tremor. Hypothesis I stated that the oscillatory cortical signals were transmitted via the mono-synaptic corticospinal pathways bypassing the PN network. The alternative hypothesis II stated that they were transmitted by way of PN multi-synaptic corticospinal pathway. Simulations indicated that without the PN network, the alternating burst patterns of antagonistic muscle EMGs could not be reliably generated, rejecting the first hypothesis. However, with the PN network, the alternating burst patterns of antagonist EMGs were naturally reproduced under all conditions of cortical oscillations. The results suggest that cortical commands of single and double tremor frequencies are further processed at PN to compute the alternating burst patterns in flexor and extensor muscles, and the neuromuscular dynamics demonstrated a frequency dependent damping on tremor, which may prevent tremor above 8 Hz to occur.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e79829. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abnormal oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia is increasingly implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. Such activity is recorded in patients in the form of oscillations in the local field potential (LFP) picked up in the subthalamic nucleus. Previous studies have focused on correlations between features of the time averaged power or amplitude spectrum of the LFP and the clinical state, either off medication or in response to levodopa. However, average spectral densities do not take account of time variant spectral properties and we hypothesised that these dynamic properties of the spectrum of the LFP would contain additional information about clinical state. Here we assess the variability in LFP amplitude over time using the coefficient of variation (CV), evaluating this with regard to clinical state off medication and in response to levodopa in two datasets. The CV of activity in the high beta frequency band was found to be correlated with clinical state off levodopa (rho=-0.59, p<0.001) and this was shown to be complementary, rather than redundant, to spectral amplitude in a multiple regression analysis, selective for rigidity-bradykinesia and highly focal. Similarly, a strong correlation was found between change in clinical scores and change in high beta CV following levodopa (rho=-0.66, p=0.004). This too was selective for rigidity-bradykinesia and non-redundant to spectral power in a multiple regression model. Our results indicate that temporal stability in the beta band is correlated with rigidity-bradykinesia. It is suggested that loss of beta reactivity is deleterious to basal ganglia function over and above any concomitant change in absolute level of beta synchrony. The CV of LFP beta band amplitude may potentially provide an additional index of clinical state suitable for feedback control in closed loop stimulation therapy.Experimental Neurology 05/2012; 236(2):383-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor