Resting oscillatory cortico-subthalamic connectivity in patients with Parkinson's disease.
ABSTRACT Both phenotype and treatment response vary in patients with Parkinson's disease. Anatomical and functional imaging studies suggest that individual symptoms may represent malfunction of different segregated networks running in parallel through the basal ganglia. In this study, we use a newly described, electrophysiological method to describe cortico-subthalamic networks in humans. We performed combined magnetoencephalographic and subthalamic local field potential recordings in thirteen patients with Parkinson's disease at rest. Two spatially and spectrally separated networks were identified. A temporoparietal-brainstem network was coherent with the subthalamic nucleus in the alpha (7-13 Hz) band, whilst a predominantly frontal network was coherent in the beta (15-35 Hz) band. Dopaminergic medication modulated the resting beta network, by increasing beta coherence between the subthalamic region and prefrontal cortex. Subthalamic activity was predominantly led by activity in the cortex in both frequency bands. The cortical topography and frequencies involved in the alpha and beta networks suggest that these networks may be involved in attentional and executive, particularly motor planning, processes, respectively.
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ABSTRACT: This review surveys recent trends in the use of local field potentials—and their non-invasive counterparts—to address the principles of functional brain architectures. In particular, we treat oscillations as the (observable) signature of context-sensitive changes in synaptic efficacy that underlie coordinated dynamics and message-passing in the brain. This rich source of information is now being exploited by various procedures—like dynamic causal modelling—to test hypotheses about neuronal circuits in health and disease. Furthermore, the roles played by neuromodulatory mechanisms can be addressed directly through their effects on oscillatory phenomena. These neuromodulatory or gain control processes are central to many theories of normal brain function (e.g. attention) and the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g. Parkinson's disease).Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 01/2015; 31:1–6.
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ABSTRACT: Parkinsonism is associated with changes in oscillatory activity patterns and increased synchronization of neurons in the basal ganglia and cortex in patients and animal models of Parkinson's disease, but the relationship between these changes and the severity of parkinsonian signs remains unclear. We examined this relationship by studying changes in local field potentials (LFPs) in the internal pallidal segment (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and in encephalographic signals (EEG) from the primary motor cortex (M1) in Rhesus monkeys which were rendered progressively parkinsonian by repeated systemic injections of small doses of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Observations during wakefulness and sleep (defined by EEG and video records) were analyzed separately. The severity of parkinsonism correlated with increases in spectral power at frequencies below 15.5Hz in M1 and GPi and reductions in spectral power at frequencies above 15.6Hz with little change in STN. The severity of parkinsonism also correlated with increases in the coherence between M1 EEG and basal ganglia LFPs in the low frequency band. Levodopa treatment reduced low-frequency activity and increased high-frequency activity in all three areas, but did not affect coherence. The state of arousal also affected LFP and EEG signals in all three structures, particularly in the STN. These results suggest that parkinsonism-associated changes in alpha and low-beta band oscillatory activity can be detected early in the parkinsonian state in M1 and GPi. Interestingly, oscillations detectable in STN LFP signals (including oscillations in the beta-band) do not appear to correlate strongly with the severity of mild-to-moderate parkinsonism in these animals. Levodopa-induced changes in oscillatory M1 EEG and basal ganglia LFP patterns do not necessarily represent a normalization of abnormalities caused by dopamine depletion.Neurobiology of Disease 04/2014; · 5.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Parkinson's Disease (PD), characterized by tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia, is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders in the world. The pathological hallmark of PD is the loss of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra and other brain regions. The pathophysiological mechanisms by which dopaminergic cell loss leads to the motor manifestations of PD are yet to be fully elucidated. A growing body of evidence has revealed abnormal neuronal oscillations within and between multiple brain regions in PD. Unique oscillatory patterns are associated with specific motor abnormalities in PD. Therapies, such as dopaminergic medication and deep brain stimulation that disrupt these abnormal neuronal oscillatory patterns produce symptomatic improvement in PD patients. These findings emphasize the importance of abnormal neuronal oscillations in the pathophysiology of PD, making the disruption of these oscillatory patterns a promising target in the development of effective PD treatments.Frontiers in bioscience (Landmark edition). 01/2014; 19:1291-1299.