Cooperation of the prolyl isomerase and chaperone activities of the protein folding catalyst SlyD.
ABSTRACT The SlyD (sensitive to lysis D) protein of Escherichia coli is a folding enzyme with a chaperone domain and a prolyl isomerase domain of the FK506 binding protein type. Here we investigated how the two domains and their interplay are optimized for function in protein folding. Unfolded protein molecules initially form a highly dynamic complex with the chaperone domain of SlyD, and they are then transferred to the prolyl isomerase domain. The turnover number of the prolyl isomerase site is very high and guarantees that, after transfer, prolyl peptide bonds in substrate proteins are isomerized very rapidly. The Michaelis constant of catalyzed folding reflects the substrate affinity of the chaperone domain, and the turnover number is presumably determined by the rate of productive substrate transfer from the chaperone to the prolyl isomerase site and by the intrinsic propensity of the refolding protein chain to leave the active site with the native prolyl isomer. The efficiency of substrate transfer is high because dissociation from the chaperone site is very fast and because the two sites are close to each other. Protein molecules that left the prolyl isomerase site with an incorrect prolyl isomer can rapidly be re-bound by the chaperone domain because the association rate is very high as well.
- SourceAvailable from: sciencedirect.comJournal of Molecular Biology 07/2013; · 3.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nickel is an essential metal for a number of bacterial species that have developed systems for acquiring, delivering, and incorporating the metal into target enzymes and controlling the levels of nickel in cells to prevent toxic effects. As with other transition metals, these trafficking systems must be able to distinguish between the desired metal and other transition metal ions with similar physical and chemical properties. Because there are few enzymes (targets) that require nickel for activity (e.g., Escherichia coli transports nickel for hydrogenases made under anaerobic conditions, and Helicobacter pylori requires nickel for hydrogenase and urease that are essential for acid viability), the "traffic pattern" for nickel is relatively simple, and nickel trafficking therefore presents an opportunity to examine a system for the mechanisms that are used to distinguish nickel from other metals. In this review, we describe the details known for examples of uptake permeases, metallochaperones and proteins involved in metallocenter assembly, and nickel metalloregulators. We also illustrate a variety of mechanisms, including molecular recognition in the case of NikA protein and examples of allosteric regulation for HypA, NikR, and RcnR, employed to generate specific biological responses to nickel ions.Biochemistry 09/2012; 51(40):7816-32. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT SurA is a component of the periplasmic chaperone network that plays a central role in biogenesis of integral outer membrane β-barrel proteins (OMPs) in Escherichia coli. Although SurA contains two well-conserved proline isomerase (PPIase) domains, the contribution of these domains to SurA function is unclear. In the present work, we show that defects in OMP assembly caused by mutation of the β-barrel assembly factors BamA or BamB can be corrected by gain-of-function mutations in SurA that map to the first PPIase domain. These mutations apparently bypass the requirement for a stable interaction between SurA and the Bam complex and enhance SurA chaperone activity in vivo despite destabilization of the protein in vitro. Our findings suggest an autoinhibitory mechanism for regulation of SurA chaperone activity through interdomain interactions involving a PPIase domain. We propose a model in which SurA activity is modulated by an interaction between SurA and the Bam complex that alters the substrate specificity of the chaperone. IMPORTANCE The dominant surA mutations described here alter amino acid residues that are highly conserved in eukaryotic homologs of SurA, including Pin1, the human proline isomerase (PPIase) implicated in Alzheimer's disease and certain cancers. Consequently, a mechanistic description of SurA function may enhance our understanding of clinically important PPIases and their role(s) in disease. In addition, the virulence of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, such as Salmonella, Shigella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, is largely dependent on SurA, making this PPIase/chaperone an attractive antibiotic target. Investigating the function of SurA in outer membrane (OM) biogenesis will be useful in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the disruption of the OM or the processes that are essential for its assembly.mBio 01/2013; 4(4). · 6.88 Impact Factor