Lower levels of physical activity in childhood associated with adult depression.
ABSTRACT Emerging evidence indicates that early life exposures influence adult health outcomes and there is cause to hypothesise a role for physical activity (PA) in childhood as a protective factor in adult depression. This study aimed to investigate the association between self-reported levels of PA in childhood and self-reported depressive illness. Lifetime depression and levels of physical activity (low/high) in childhood (<15 yr) were ascertained by self-report in 2152 adults (20-97 yr) participating in an ongoing epidemiological study in south-eastern Australia. Data were collected between 2000 and 2006. In this sample, 141 women (18.9%) and 169 men (12.0%) reported ever having a depressive episode. Low PA in childhood was associated with an increased risk of reporting depression in adulthood (OR=1.70, 95%CI=1.32-2.17, p<0.001). Adjustment for age, gender and adult PA attenuated the relationship somewhat (OR=1.35, 95%CI=1.01-1.78, p=0.04), however further adjustment for SES or country of birth did not affect this relationship. In this community-based study, lower levels of self-reported PA in childhood were associated with a 35% increase in odds for self-reported depression in adulthood. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that lower levels of PA in childhood may be a risk factor for adult depression.
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ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the treatment-emergent activation and suicidality assessment profile (TEASAP) in a clinical sample of 56 youth aged 7-17 with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) who participated in a double-blind randomized controlled trial. The 38-item TEASAP demonstrated good internal consistency for its total score (α=0.93) and adequate to good performance for its five subscale scores (α=0.65-0.92). One week test-retest stability (N=18) was adequate (Intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=0.68-0.80) except for Self-Injury (ICC=0.46). Construct validity was supported by total and subscale TEASAP score relationships with related constructs, including irritability, hyperactivity, externalizing behaviors, manic symptoms, and suicidal ideation, and the absence of relationships with unrelated constructs. Predictive validity was established for the Disinhibition subscale through significant associations with subsequent activation events. Furthermore, TEASAP sensitivity to change in activation scores over time was supported by longitudinal associations of TEASAP scores with clinician ratings of activation over the course of treatment. Findings indicate that the TEASAP has acceptable psychometric properties in a clinical sample of youth with OCD and merits further study in larger samples for additional refinement of its measurement approaches.09/2012; 205(3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2012.09.019
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ABSTRACT: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are an efficacious and effective treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but have received scrutiny due to a potential side effect constellation called activation syndrome. While recent research introduced a subjective measure of activation syndrome, objective measures have not been tested. This pilot study, using data from a larger randomized-controlled trial, investigated the potential of actigraphy to provide an objective measure of activation symptoms in 44 youths with OCD beginning an SSRI medication regimen. Data were collected over the first four weeks of a multi-site, parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled psychopharmacological treatment study and statistical modeling was utilized to test how activation syndrome severity predicts daily and nightly activity levels. Results indicated that youths with higher activation symptoms had lower daytime activity levels when treatment averages were analyzed; in contrast youths who experienced onset of activation symptoms one week were more likely to have higher day-time and night-time activity ratings that week. Results support actigraphy as a potential objective measure of activation symptoms. Subsequent studies are needed to confirm these findings and test clinical applications for use by clinicians to monitor activation syndrome during SSRI treatment. National Institutes of Health (5UO1 MH078594-01); NCT00382291. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Psychiatry Research 12/2014; 225(3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.11.070 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many studies support a crucial role for oxidative & nitrosative stress (O&NS) in the pathophysiology of unipolar and bipolar depression. These disorders are characterized inter alia by lowered antioxidant defenses, including: lower levels of zinc, coenzyme Q10, vitamin E and glutathione; increased lipid peroxidation; damage to proteins, DNA and mitochondria; secondary autoimmune responses directed against redox modified nitrosylated proteins and oxidative specific epitopes. This review examines and details a model through which a complex series of environmental factors and biological pathways contribute to increased redox signaling and consequently increased O&NS in mood disorders. This multi-step process highlights the potential for future interventions that encompass a diverse range of environmental and molecular targets in the treatment of depression.Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 05/2014; 45. DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.05.007 · 10.28 Impact Factor