Lower levels of physical activity in childhood associated with adult depression
ABSTRACT Emerging evidence indicates that early life exposures influence adult health outcomes and there is cause to hypothesise a role for physical activity (PA) in childhood as a protective factor in adult depression. This study aimed to investigate the association between self-reported levels of PA in childhood and self-reported depressive illness. Lifetime depression and levels of physical activity (low/high) in childhood (<15 yr) were ascertained by self-report in 2152 adults (20-97 yr) participating in an ongoing epidemiological study in south-eastern Australia. Data were collected between 2000 and 2006. In this sample, 141 women (18.9%) and 169 men (12.0%) reported ever having a depressive episode. Low PA in childhood was associated with an increased risk of reporting depression in adulthood (OR=1.70, 95%CI=1.32-2.17, p<0.001). Adjustment for age, gender and adult PA attenuated the relationship somewhat (OR=1.35, 95%CI=1.01-1.78, p=0.04), however further adjustment for SES or country of birth did not affect this relationship. In this community-based study, lower levels of self-reported PA in childhood were associated with a 35% increase in odds for self-reported depression in adulthood. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that lower levels of PA in childhood may be a risk factor for adult depression.
- SourceAvailable from: Felice N Jacka
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- "Physical comorbidities similarly are more common among those with obesity, as they are in those with depression (Bell et al., 2011) and, thus, inflammation associated with physical illness may underpin the link between obesity and negative affect. Physical inactivity (Jacka et al., 2011b; Pasco et al., 2011a, 2011b) and poor quality diet (Jacka et al., 2010) are key underlying lifestyle behaviours that predispose both obesity and mood. Whilst it is suggested that food intake generally enhances mood (Schulz and Laessle, 2010), awareness of excessive food intake and emotional eating may contribute to the links between obesity and psychological distress. "
ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine the cross-sectional association between overweight and obesity and positive and negative affect. Method: Participants included 273 women, aged 29–84 years, who were enrolled in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (GOS). Weight and height were measured and overweight and obesity determined from body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) according to WHO criteria. Medical history and lifestyle exposures were assessed by questionnaire. Positive and negative affect scores were derived using the validated 20-item Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and categorised into tertiles. Results: A pattern of greater negative affect scores was observed for increasing levels of BMI. Setting normal weight as the referent category, the odds for having a negative affect score in the highest tertile were sequentially increased for women who were overweight (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.72–2.40) and obese (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.02–3.73). The associa- tion between obesity and increased negative affect was diminished by adjusting for physical illness (adjusted OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.91–3.42). These associations were not substantially influenced by positive affect score or other exposures. No association was detected between BMI categories and positive affect scores. Conclusions: We report data suggesting that obesity is associated with greater negative affect scores, reflecting emotions such as distress, anger, disgust, fear and shame, and that this association is attenuated by physical illness. Further investigations are now warranted to explore possible mechanistic interplay between pathological, neurobiological and psychosocial factors.Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 03/2013; 00:1-6. DOI:10.1177/0004867413483371 · 3.77 Impact Factor
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- "Preliminary research has employed actigraphy in research addressing sleep in anxiety disorders (e.g., Alfano and Kim, 2011; Drummond et al., 2012) and developmental disorders (e.g., Tryon et al., 2006). A large literature links higher depressive symptoms to lower activity levels (e.g., Jacka et al., 2011; Mangerud et al., 2014). Notably, 60% of children and adolescents with depressive disorders have low activity compared to 40% of those with anxiety disorders (Mangerud et al., 2014). "
ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the treatment-emergent activation and suicidality assessment profile (TEASAP) in a clinical sample of 56 youth aged 7-17 with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) who participated in a double-blind randomized controlled trial. The 38-item TEASAP demonstrated good internal consistency for its total score (α=0.93) and adequate to good performance for its five subscale scores (α=0.65-0.92). One week test-retest stability (N=18) was adequate (Intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=0.68-0.80) except for Self-Injury (ICC=0.46). Construct validity was supported by total and subscale TEASAP score relationships with related constructs, including irritability, hyperactivity, externalizing behaviors, manic symptoms, and suicidal ideation, and the absence of relationships with unrelated constructs. Predictive validity was established for the Disinhibition subscale through significant associations with subsequent activation events. Furthermore, TEASAP sensitivity to change in activation scores over time was supported by longitudinal associations of TEASAP scores with clinician ratings of activation over the course of treatment. Findings indicate that the TEASAP has acceptable psychometric properties in a clinical sample of youth with OCD and merits further study in larger samples for additional refinement of its measurement approaches.09/2012; 205(3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2012.09.019
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- "To date, no study has examined the prevalence of current mood disorders as determined by the gold standard Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Research Version, Non-patient edition (SCID-I/NP), across area-based SES indices and accounting for many known lifestyle risk factors    . Given the widely documented association between SES and most causes of morbidity [11,12,21–24], we would expect to observe an association between prevalent mood disorder and SES. "
ABSTRACT: Data suggest there are established socio-economic disparities associated with mental health although most research has focused on individual-level indicators of socio-economic position. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between mood disorders and area-based socio-economic status (SES), and whether both ends of the SES continuum experienced increased odds for a mood disorder. Using a clinical interview (SCID-I/NP), psychiatric history was ascertained in a population-based sample of 1095 women (20-93 years) from the Barwon Statistical Division, south-eastern Australia. SES was determined by cross-referencing residential addresses with Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006 census data for the region and categorised into three groupings of low, mid, and upper SES. The Index of Economic Resources (IER), Index of Education and Occupation (IEO), and Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage/Disadvantage (IRSAD) were utilised. Lifestyle factors were self-reported. For IER, the low SES group had a 2.0-fold increased odds of a current mood disorder compared to the mid group, after adjustment for physical activity and current anxiety (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.0-4.1, p=0.05). This pattern was similarly observed for IEO (OR=1.8, 95% CI 0.9-3.7, p=0.1) and IRSAD (OR=1.6 95% CI 0.8-3.4, p=0.2). Those within the upper SES group showed a non-significant increase in the odds of a current mood disorder compared to the mid-group; IER (OR=1.4, 95% CI 0.8-2.5, p=0.3), IEO (OR=1.2, 95% CI 0.07-2.3, p=0.5) and IRSAD (OR=1.2, 95% CI 0.7-2.1, p=0.6). Women in the low SES category were most likely to have a mood disorder. Furthermore, being in an upper SES group may not be protective against mood disorders.Maturitas 06/2011; 69(2):173-8. DOI:10.1016/j.maturitas.2011.03.015 · 2.86 Impact Factor