Usefulness of Left Ventricular Inflow Index to Predict Successful Biventricular Repair in Right-Dominant Unbalanced Atrioventricular Canal
ABSTRACT The outcome of biventricular (BV) repair for right-dominant unbalanced atrioventricular canal has remained poor, because it is difficult to predict left ventricular (LV) adequacy before surgery. Our aim was to determine whether preoperative echocardiographic parameters, specifically analysis of color inflow into the LV, would predict survival after BV repair in patients with right-dominant unbalanced atrioventricular canal. Subjects with right-dominant unbalanced atrioventricular canal diagnosed from 1994 to 2007 were included. The echocardiographic parameters were analyzed blinded to the palliation strategy and survival. The LV inflow index (LVII) was calculated as the secondary color inflow diameter indexed to the left atrioventricular valve (AVV) annulus diameter. Univariate analysis, survival analysis, and multivariate modeling with stepwise logistic regression were performed. Of the 45 subjects, 23 (51%) underwent single ventricle (SV) palliation and 22 (49%) underwent BV repair. Of the 23 who underwent SV palliation, 15 (65%) survived compared to 18 (82%) of 22 who underwent BV repair (p = 0.34). In the BV group, a greater LVII predicted survival (R2 = 0.46, p = 0.03). No subjects with a LVII <0.5 survived BV repair. Mortality in the BV group was associated with younger age at initial surgery (p <0.01) and abnormal left AVV morphology (p = 0.02). Of the BV subjects with a patent ductus arteriosus at the initial operation (n = 11), the nonsurvivors were more likely to have retrograde flow in the transverse arch (p <0.01). In the BV group, reoperation within 30 days of the initial repair was strongly associated with mortality (p <0.01). In conclusion, in cases of mild or moderate LV hypoplasia, a greater LVII predicted survival after BV repair in patients with right-dominant unbalanced atrioventricular canal. We propose incorporation of the LVII into the echocardiographic assessment of these patients.
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ABSTRACT: Although identification of unbalanced atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) is obvious when extreme, exact criteria to define the limits of unbalanced are not available. We sought to validate an atrioventricular valve index (AVVI) (left atrioventricular valve area/total atrioventricular valve area, centimeters squared) as a discriminator of balanced and unbalanced forms of complete AVSD and to characterize the association of AVVI with surgical strategies and outcomes. Diagnostic echocardiograms and hospital records of 356 infants with complete AVSD at 4 Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society (CHSS) institutions (2000-2006) were reviewed and AVVI measured (n=315). Patients were classified as unbalanced if AVVI≤0.4 (right dominant) or ≥0.6 (left dominant). Surgical strategy and outcomes were examined across the range of AVVI. Competing risks analysis until the time of commitment to a surgical strategy examined 4 end states: biventricular repair (BVR), univentricular repair (UVR), pulmonary artery banding (PAB), and death before surgery. A prediction nomogram for surgical strategy based on AVVI was developed. The majority of patients had balanced AVSD (0.4<AVVI<0.6) and underwent BVR. Patients with AVVI<0.19 uniformly underwent UVR. Heterogeneous repair strategies were found when 0.19≤AVVI≤0.39 (UVR and BVR), with a disproportionate number of deaths in this range. AVVI≥0.6 (left dominant) was less common. The proportion of subjects predicted for the end states at 12 months after diagnosis are: BVR, 86%; UVR, 7%; PAB, 1%; death without surgery, 1%; alive without surgery, 5%. AVVI effectively characterizes the transition between balanced and unbalanced AVSD with important correlation to anatomic substrate and selected surgical strategy.Circulation 09/2010; 122(11 Suppl):S209-15. DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.925636 · 14.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In neonates and infants with congenital heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is an established imaging modality in all patients in whom echocardiography does not provide sufficient information and definitive diagnosis. CMR is noninvasive, and does not involve vascular catheterization or ionizing radiation. Therefore the use of CMR obviates the potential risks of cardiac catheterization in critically ill infants. This article discusses the use of CMR in newborns with CHD before cardiac surgery, focusing on conotruncal anomalies, pulmonary venous anomalies, complex CHD in visceroatrial heterotaxy, borderline hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and the use of contrast medium in newborns.Magnetic resonance imaging clinics of North America 11/2011; 19(4):823-40; viii. DOI:10.1016/j.mric.2011.08.005 · 0.99 Impact Factor