Outcomes from treatment of necrotizing soft-tissue infections: results from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database.
ABSTRACT Necrotizing soft-tissue infections (NSTIs) are a group of uncommon, rapidly progressive, potentially fatal disorders. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) Registry was used to determine current data on the incidence, treatment, and outcomes of NSTIs.
There were 688 NSTI cases identified for years 2005 to 2008. Ten control patients for each NSTI patient were also selected. Demographic, laboratory, and outcome data were collected to compare both groups.
Evidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), sepsis, or septic shock occurred in 83% of NSTI cases. Mortality was 12% for NSTI patients versus 2% for controls. Regression analysis showed that age, emergent surgery, transfer from an outside hospital, sepsis, and several comorbid diseases correlated with mortality but not sex or diabetes. Direct admission was associated with reduced mortality.
NSTIs are seen regularly in academic centers, and their incidence may be increasing. Despite a high incidence of comorbid conditions and frequent presentation with sepsis, mortality is lower than previously reported, reflecting ongoing progress in the treatment of these disorders at NSQIP hospitals.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Alfred Hospital is a referral centre for necrotizing soft tissue infections (NTSIs) in the state of Victoria and receives around 20 such patients each year. We sought to compare our practice and outcomes against published data, and to examine management at referring hospitals to determine whether adjustments to current practices are required. A retrospective chart review of patients admitted to the Alfred Hospital between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2010 with a diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis was conducted. Demographic, etiologic, treatment and outcome data were collected and analysed. Two hundred and nineteen patients were identified with a mean age of 54.76 years and a preponderance of men (63.47%). The overall mortality rate for the patient group was 15.98%. More than 80% of patients were transferred from another facility. Nearly 40% of patients did not undergo surgical debridement within 24 h of presentation to a hospital and 30.6% were not debrided prior to transfer. Patients underwent a median of three procedures at the Alfred Hospital and the majority of patients required admission to the intensive care unit (68.95%). NTSIs remain a surgical emergency with high rates of mortality and resource requirements. The mortality rate at our institution compares well with other published series. Many patients experienced delays before undergoing debridement and in many cases were transferred without debridement. The trend towards transferring NTSI patients to centres accustomed to treating burns and major trauma seems logical, but should not delay life-saving surgical debridement. Timing of transfer does not seem to affect mortality.ANZ Journal of Surgery 10/2013; · 1.50 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a relatively rare infection of soft tissues. This study reviewed the epidemiology and pathophysiology of admissions to a tertiary referral hospital over a twelve year period comparing outcomes and findings with international norms and to identify potential areas of change to optimise outcomes. Study design A retrospective review of patients diagnosed with NF from Jan 1st 1999 to Dec 31st 2011 was performed. Patient demographics, risk factors, operative procedures, microbiology results and outcomes were recorded. Comparative analysis was performed. Results 37 patients were admitted with NF, comprising 30 males and 7 females with a median age of 55 years. The most common site of infection was the perineum (51%). The overall mortality rate was 29% and was significantly associated with age greater than 60 years (p = 0.0018) and the presence of one or more risk factor (p = 0.0046). The number of surgical procedures ranged from one to fifteen with a median length of stay of 35.5 days. There was a significant increase in the number of admissions in 2009–2010 (p < 0.001), coinciding with the emergence of NF in intravenous drug users (IVDU). 43% of patients (n = 16/37) required skin grafting, which was significantly higher in the IVDU group (n = 5/6, p = 0.0232). Conclusions Necrotizing fasciitis remains a significant life-threatening event. The diversity of causative pathogens emphasises the need for prompt microbiology/infectious diseases consultation. The increased occurrence within the IVDU cohort in this study highlights the need for a heightened level of clinical suspicion in these patients to prompt early surgical intervention.The surgeon: journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland 01/2014; · 1.97 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: The utility of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in the treatment of necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) has not been proved. Previous studies have been subject to substantial selection bias because HBOT is not available universally at all medical centers, and there is often considerable delay associated with its initiation. We examined the utility of HBOT for the treatment of NSTI in the modern era by isolating centers that have their own HBOT facilities. Methods: We queried all centers in the University Health Consortium (UHC) database from 2008 to 2010 that have their own HBOT facilities (n=14). Cases of NSTI were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes, which included Fournier gangrene (608.83), necrotizing fasciitis (728.86), and gas gangrene (040.0). Status of HBOT was identified by the presence (HBOT) or absence (control) of ICD-9 procedure code 93.95. Our cohort was risk-stratified and matched by UHC's validated severity of illness (SOI) score. Comparisons were then made using univariate tests of association and multivariable logistic regression. Results: There were 1,583 NSTI cases at the 14 HBOT-capable centers. 117 (7%) cases were treated with HBOT. Univariate analysis showed that there was no difference between HBOT and control groups in hospital length of stay, direct cost, complications, and mortality across the three less severe SOI classes (minor, moderate, and major). However, for extreme SOI the HBOT group had fewer complications (45% vs. 66%; p<0.01) and fewer deaths (4% vs. 23%; p<0.01). Multivariable analysis showed that patients who did not receive HBOT were less likely to survive their index hospitalization (odds ratio, 10.6; 95% CI 5.2-25.1). Conclusion: At HBOT-capable centers, receiving HBOT was associated with a significant survival benefit. Use of HBOT in conjunction with current practices for the treatment of NSTI can be both a cost-effective and life-saving therapy, in particular for the sickest patients.Surgical Infections 05/2014; · 1.87 Impact Factor