Chronic hepatitis B (HBV) or C (HCV) virus infection has been associated with increased risk of death, particularly from liver- and drug-related causes. We examined specific causes of death among a population-based cohort of people infected with HBV or HCV to identify areas of excess risk and examine trends in mortality.
HBV and HCV cases notified to the New South Wales (NSW) Health Department between 1992 and 2006 were linked to cause of death data and HIV/AIDS notifications. Mortality rates and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated using person time methodology, with NSW population rates used as a comparison.
The study cohort comprised 42,480 individuals with HBV mono-infection and 82,034 with HCV mono-infection. HIV co-infection increased the overall mortality rate three to 10-fold compared to mono-infected groups. Liver-related deaths were associated with high excess risk of mortality in both HBV and HCV groups (SMR 10.0, 95% CI 9.0-11.1; 15.8, 95% CI 14.8-16.8). Drug-related deaths among the HCV group also represented an elevated excess risk (SMR 15.4, 95% CI 14.5-16.3). Rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-related death remained steady in both groups. A decrease in non-HCC liver-related deaths was seen in the HBV group between 1997 and 2006, but not in the HCV group. After a sharp decrease between 1999 and 2002, drug-related mortality rates in the HCV group have been stable.
Improvements in HBV treatment and uptake have most likely reduced non-HCC liver-related mortality. Encouragingly, HCV drug-related mortality remained low compared to pre-2002 levels, likely due to changes in opiate supply, and maintenance or improvement in harm reduction strategies.
"Progression to advanced liver disease is uncommon in the initial 10–20 years of infection, particularly among PWID who generally acquire infection at a younger age, but becomes more common with each subsequent decade of infection (Thein et al., 2008a,b; Grebely and Dore, 2011; Kirk et al., 2013). Although younger individuals with HCV infection are at lower risk of HCV-related morbidity and mortality, and drug-related mortality is significant among PWID, the ageing cohort nature of PWID populations means that liver disease-related mortality is increasing (Amin et al., 2006; Grebely et al., 2011; Deans et al., 2013; Walter et al., 2011). There is also increasing evidence that HCV infection is associated with an increase in both hepatic and extra-hepatic disease, including circulatory diseases, renal diseases , and neuropsychiatric disorders (Lee et al., 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: People who inject drugs (PWID) represent the core of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic in many countries and HCV-related disease burden continues to rise. There are compelling data demonstrating that with the appropriate programs, treatment for HCV infection among PWID is successful, with responses to therapy similar those observed in large randomized controlled trials in non-PWID. However, assessment and treatment for HCV infection lags far behind the numbers who could benefit from therapy, related to systems-, provider- and patient-related barriers to care. The approaching era of interferon-free directly acting antiviral therapy has the potential to provide one of the great advances in clinical medicine. Simple, tolerable and highly effective therapy will likely address many of these barriers, thereby enhancing the numbers of PWID cured of HCV infection. This commentary will consider why we should strive for the eradication of HCV infection among PWID, whether eradication of HCV infection among PWID is feasible, components that would be needed to achieve eradication of HCV infection in PWID, potential settings and strategies required to establish programs targeted towards eradicating HCV infection among PWID and the feasibility of eradication versus elimination of HCV infection among PWID. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Hepatitis C: next steps toward global eradication."
Antiviral research 01/2014; 104(1). DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2014.01.002 · 3.94 Impact Factor
"Therefore, even if the overall cirrhosis risk is similar there may be a greater risk of liver cancer in HBV cases. Our results are consistent with other populations-based linkage studies in Australia which show higher mortality from, and incidence of, liver cancer in people with HBV compared to those with HCV [1,42]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have reported an excess burden of cancer and mortality in populations with chronic hepatitis B (HBV) or C (HCV), but there are limited data comparing hospitalization rates. In this study, we compared hospitalization rates for all causes and viral liver disease in people notified with HBV or HCV in New South Wales (NSW), Australia.
HBV and HCV notifications were linked to their hospital (July 2000-June 2006), HIV and death records. Standardized hospitalization ratios (SHRs) were calculated using rates for the NSW population. Random effects Poisson regression was used to examine temporal trends.
The SHR for all causes and non alcoholic liver disease was two-fold higher in the HCV cohort compared with the HBV cohort (SHRs 1.4 (95%CI: 1.4-1.4) v 0.6 (95%CI: 0.6-0.6) and 14.0 (95%CI: 12.7-15.4) v 5.4 (95%CI: 4.5-6.4), respectively), whilst the opposite was seen for primary liver cancer (SHRs 16.2 (95%CI: 13.8-19.1) v 29.1 (95%CI: 24.7-34.2)). HIV co-infection doubled the SHR except for primary liver cancer in the HCV/HIV cohort. In HBV and HCV mono-infected cohorts, all cause hospitalization rates declined and primary liver cancer rates increased, whilst rates for non alcoholic liver disease increased by 9% in the HCV cohort but decreased by 14% in the HBV cohort (P < 0.001).
Hospital-related morbidity overall and for non alcoholic liver disease was considerably higher for HCV than HBV. Improved treatment of advanced HBV-related liver disease may explain why HBV liver-related morbidity declined. In contrast, HCV liver-related morbidity increased and improved treatments, especially for advanced liver disease, and higher levels of treatment uptake are required to reverse this trend.
BMC Public Health 01/2011; 11(1):52. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-11-52 · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related morbidity and mortality continues to rise. Progression to advanced liver disease among HCV-infected individuals generally requires decades, but we are entering an era where those infected with HCV in the 1970s and 1980s are at significant risk of mortality. Liver disease has overtaken drug-related harm as the major cause of mortality in HCV-infected individuals in many settings. Direct-acting antiviral therapies have provided renewed optimism, but HCV treatment uptake will need to increase markedly to reduce liver disease mortality. This review provides updated information on the natural history of HCV, disease-specific causes of mortality among people with HCV, estimates and projections of HCV-related disease burden and mortality and individual and population-level strategies to reduce mortality. The considerable variability in mortality rates within subpopulations of people with HCV will be outlined, such as in people who inject drugs and those with HIV co-infection.
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