Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Causes Different Changes in Longitudinal, Radial, and Circumferential Mechanics in Patients with Hypertension: A Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Study
ABSTRACT Systolic reserve is an important compensatory mechanism against increasing afterload. Although longitudinal systolic dysfunction with preserved ejection fraction has been reported in hypertensive hearts, radial and circumferential function has not been fully examined. The aim of this study was to investigate three-directional systolic function and its relationships with left ventricular geometry in asymptomatic hypertensive patients using two-dimensional speckle-tracking imaging.
Echocardiographic evaluations were performed in 74 hypertensive patients and 55 age-matched control subjects.
Longitudinal strain was significantly reduced in the hypertrophy groups compared with that in control subjects (concentric, -15.1 ± 4.0%; eccentric, -15.9 ± 4.4%; control, -18.9 ± 3.3%; P < .05). Conversely, radial strain was significantly higher in the normal geometry group than in control subjects (53.8 ± 19.4% vs 40.3 ± 15.1%, P < .05). However, this augmentation was attenuated in the other geometries.
Hypertrophic remodeling attenuates compensatory augmentation of radial systolic function and is associated with latent longitudinal systolic dysfunction.
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ABSTRACT: It has been well established that high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-TnT) is a specific and highly sensitive marker in acute coronary syndromes. On the other hand, studies on serum concentrations of hs-TnT in patients with hypertension in the absence of significant coronary stenosis are limited. Therefore, we hypothesized that hs-TnT levels are related to left ventricular (LV) remodeling and performance in hypertension. We included 537 hemodynamically stable hypertensive subjects, 247 males aged 60.7 ± 11.1 years, and 100 normotensive subjects of similar age and gender. Clinical examination, clinical assessment and laboratory assays were performed for all hypertensive and normotensive subjects. The detectable rate (>0.003 ng/mL) and elevated rate (>0.013 ng/mL) of hs-TnT were higher in hypertensive subjects than those in normotensive subjects. hs-TnT level gradually increased in hypertensive subjects with LV normal geometry, concentric remodeling, concentric hypertrophy and eccentric hypertrophy. hs-TnT was independently related to age, gender, hypertension, fasting blood glucose, renal function, and LV hypertrophy, and diastolic function on multiple analysis during the whole participation. An increase in hs-TnT levels could be a reliable biomarker of cardiac remodeling and function in hypertension, as an indicator of subclinical ongoing cardiomyocyte injury.Genetics and molecular research: GMR 01/2014; 13(3):5143-53. DOI:10.4238/2014.July.7.7 · 0.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IntroductionMyocardial iron overload leading to congestive heart failure (HF) or arrhythmias is a recognized complication in thalassemia patients undergoing chronic blood transfusion. The relationship between myocardial iron load, subclinical systolic dysfunction, and clinical events remains less well known.Materials and Methods We studied a total of 77 subjects, comprising 37 thalassemia patients (mean age: 24.2 ± 5.5 years) with a history of repeated blood transfusions, in addition to 40 age- and gender-matched controls (mean age: 24 ± 4.5 years). Serum ferritin levels were checked in all subjects, as well as semiautomated quantification of left ventricular (LV) longitudinal, circumferential, and radial deformations assessed by two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking analysis.ResultsCompared with the control group, thalassemia patients showed significantly larger LV mass index and lower myocardial deformations (P < 0.05), but left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) did not differ significantly (P = 0.233). There was a significant linear correlation between serum ferritin level and longitudinal (r = 0.44, P = 0.0078) and radial strain (r = −0.46, P = 0.0051), with optimal cutoff provided to be −15.48%, −21.31%, and 26.67% for longitudinal, circumferential, and radial strain in predicting clinical events, respectively. During a median of 802.5 days follow-up, 11 clinical composites (HF incidence, ventricular tachyarrhythmia, and death) occurred (N = 9 subjects); subjects with composites had significantly reduced longitudinal and radial strain compared to those without (both P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, serum ferritin level, and LV mass index, a worsening of longitudinal strain remained as an independent predictor of clinical events and death (HR: 6.05, P = 0.033).Conclusion Subclinical systolic dysfunction appears more likely in thalassemia subjects with a history of repeated blood transfusions, which further correlated with serum ferritin levels. In addition, worsening LV myocardial deformation parameters may play an independent role in predicting clinical outcomes beyond traditional measures in this population.Echocardiography 03/2014; 32(1). DOI:10.1111/echo.12590 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background The aim of this multicenter study was to determine the normal ranges and the clinical relevance of multidirectional systolic parameters to evaluate global left ventricular (LV) systolic function. Methods Three hundred twenty-three healthy adult subjects prospectively included at 10 centers and a cohort of 310 patients with hypertension were analyzed. Multidirectional global LV systolic function was analyzed using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography by means of two indices: longitudinal-circumferential systolic index (the average of longitudinal and circumferential global systolic strain) and global systolic index (the average of longitudinal, circumferential, and radial global systolic strain). Results The ranges of values of the multidirectional systolic parameters in healthy subjects were −21.22 ± 2.22% for longitudinal-circumferential systolic index and 29.71 ± 5.28% for global systolic index. In addition, the lowest expected values of these multidirectional indices were determined in this population (calculated as −1.96 SDs from the mean): −16.86% for longitudinal-circumferential systolic index and 19.36% for global systolic index. Concerning the clinical relevance of these measurements, these indices indicated the presence of subtle LV global systolic dysfunction in patients with hypertension, even though LV global longitudinal systolic strain and LV ejection fraction were normal. Moreover, in these patients, functional class (dyspnea [New York Heart Association classification]) was inversely related to both the longitudinal-circumferential index and the global systolic index. Conclusions In the present multicenter study analyzing a large cohort of healthy subjects and patients with hypertension, the normal range and the clinical relevance of multidirectional systolic parameters to evaluate global LV systolic function have been determined.Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 01/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.echo.2014.01.017 · 3.99 Impact Factor