Left ventricular hypertrophy causes different changes in longitudinal, radial, and circumferential mechanics in patients with hypertension: a two-dimensional speckle tracking study.
ABSTRACT Systolic reserve is an important compensatory mechanism against increasing afterload. Although longitudinal systolic dysfunction with preserved ejection fraction has been reported in hypertensive hearts, radial and circumferential function has not been fully examined. The aim of this study was to investigate three-directional systolic function and its relationships with left ventricular geometry in asymptomatic hypertensive patients using two-dimensional speckle-tracking imaging.
Echocardiographic evaluations were performed in 74 hypertensive patients and 55 age-matched control subjects.
Longitudinal strain was significantly reduced in the hypertrophy groups compared with that in control subjects (concentric, -15.1 ± 4.0%; eccentric, -15.9 ± 4.4%; control, -18.9 ± 3.3%; P < .05). Conversely, radial strain was significantly higher in the normal geometry group than in control subjects (53.8 ± 19.4% vs 40.3 ± 15.1%, P < .05). However, this augmentation was attenuated in the other geometries.
Hypertrophic remodeling attenuates compensatory augmentation of radial systolic function and is associated with latent longitudinal systolic dysfunction.
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ABSTRACT: Strain (ε) and strain rate (SR or s-1) are clinical indices of regional myocardial deformation which can be measured by speckle tracking echocardiography and have been introduced and validated using tagged MRI and sonomicrometry. The strain measured by 2D-STE has several advantages over the strain obtained with Tissue Doppler, mainly a lower intra and inter-observer variability. Three main systolic deformation patterns form perpendicular axis in the heart’s internal coordinate system: longitudinal shortening, circumferential shortening and radial thickening. Applying the 2D-STE is possible to measure the strain in the longitudinal, circumferential, and radial axis without angle influence. The 2D-STE as a relatively user-friendly and accurate diagnostic tool is developing at a rapid pace, not only for its diagnostic power, but also because of the prognostic value of the information in various heart diseases. The possibility of detection of cardiac subclinical damage has been one of the major advantages in using the 2D-STE. Like any diagnostic method, this also has its limitations, which must be known and respected. Future prospects for the method are very promising. Although some authors believe that the strain will replace LVEF, others feel that the information obtained with the 2D-STE should be introduced as a supplement and not as a substitute for established clinical indices.Rev bras ecocardiogr imagem cardiovasc. 02/2013; 2013(26 (1)):38-49.
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ABSTRACT: Central artery dilation and remodeling are associated with higher heart failure and cardiovascular risks. However, data regarding carotid artery diameter from hypertension to heart failure have remained elusive. We sought to investigate this issue by examining the association between carotid artery diameter and surrogates of ventricular dysfunction. Two hundred thirteen consecutive patients including 49 with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), 116 with hypertension, and an additional 48 healthy participants underwent comprehensive echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. Ultrasonography of the common carotid arteries was performed for measurement of intima-media thickness and diameter (CCAD). Cardiac mechanics, including LV twist, were assessed by novel speckle-tracking software. A substantial graded enlargement of CCAD was observed across all 3 groups (6.8±0.6, 7.7±0.73, and 8.7±0.95 mm for normal, hypertension, and HFpEF groups, respectively; ANOVA P<0.001) and correlated with serum brain natriuretic peptide level (R(2)=0.31, P<0.001). Multivariable models showed that CCAD was associated with increased LV mass, LV mass-to-volume ratio (β-coefficient=10.9 and 0.11, both P<0.001), reduced LV longitudinal and radial strain (β-coeffficient=0.81 and -3.1, both P<0.05), and twist (β-coefficient=-0.84, P<0.05). CCAD set at 8.07 mm as a cut-off had a 77.6% sensitivity, 82.3% specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.86 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.92) in discriminating HFpEF. In addition, CCAD superimposed on myocardial deformation significantly expanded AUROC (for longitudinal strain, from 0.84 to 0.90, P of ΔAUROC=0.02) in heart failure discrimination models. Increased carotid artery diameter is associated with worse LV geometry, higher brain natriuretic peptide level, and reduced contractile mechanics in individuals with HFpEF.Journal of the American Heart Association. 12/2012; 1(6):e003053.
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ABSTRACT: Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) is a novel technology that directly measures regional left ventricular (LV) wall contraction. This study aimed to directly measure inner-layer thickening (radial strain) of the LV using 2D-STE, and to examine the relationship between radial strain and the degree of hypertrophy. The study enrolled 63 untreated hypertensive patients with normal geometry (N group, n=32) or concentric hypertrophy (CH group, n=31), classified according to LV mass index (LVMI) and relative wall thickness (RWT). Thirty normotensive subjects (C group, n=30) served as controls. Radial strain (ɛ) in the inner half (ɛi) and all layers of the LV wall (ɛa) were calculated from the LV short-axis view by 2D-STE. LV ejection fraction did not differ significantly among the groups. However, ɛi and ɛa were significantly lower in the CH group compared with the C and N groups (p<0.01). A ratio of ɛi to ɛa was significantly lower in the CH group compared with the C and N groups (p<0.01). A multivariate regression model that included midwall fractional shortening, E/e', LVMI, RWT, and LV ejection fraction showed that LVMI (p=0.002) and RWT (p=0.014) were independent predictors (R(2)=0.59) of ɛi. Radial strain in the inner half layer of the LV wall decreases in parallel with the degrees of LV concentricity and hypertrophy in hypertensive patients. Radial strain in the inner half layer may identify subtle systolic dysfunction even in hypertensive patients with preserved LV chamber function.Journal of Cardiology 09/2011; 59(1):64-71. · 2.30 Impact Factor