Cognitive predictors of problem drinking and AUDIT scores among college students.
ABSTRACT Evidence from a number of substance abuse populations suggests that substance abuse is associated with a cluster of differences in cognitive processes. However, investigations of this kind in non-clinical samples are relatively few. The present study examined the ability of alcohol-attentional bias (an alcohol Stroop task), impulsive decision-making (a delay discounting task), and impaired inhibitory control (a GO-NOGO task) to: (a) discriminate problem from non-problem drinkers among a sample of college students; (b) predict scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; a measure of alcohol consumption, drinking behaviour, and alcohol-related problems) across all of the student drinkers; (c) predict AUDIT scores within the subgroups of problem and non-problem student drinkers. In logistic regression controlling for gender and age, student drinkers with elevated alcohol-attentional bias and impulsive decision-making were over twice as likely to be a problem than a non-problem drinker. Multiple regression analysis of the entire sample revealed that all three cognitive measures were significant predictors of AUDIT scores after gender and age had been controlled; the cognitive variables together accounted for 48% of the variance. Moreover, subsequent multiple regressions revealed that impaired inhibitory control was the only significant predictor of AUDIT scores for the group of non-problem drinkers, and alcohol-attentional bias and impulsive decision-making were the only significant predictors of AUDIT scores for the group of problem drinkers. Finally, both impulsive decision-making and impaired inhibitory control were significantly correlated with alcohol-attentional bias across the whole sample. Implications are discussed relating to the development of problematic drinking.
- SourceAvailable from: Warren K Bickel[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Delay discounting was investigated in opioid-dependent and non-drug-using control participants. The latter participants were matched to the former on age, gender, education, and IQ. Participants in both groups chose between hypothetical monetary rewards available either immediately or after a delay. Delayed rewards were $1,000, and the immediate-reward amount was adjusted until choices reflected indifference. This procedure was repeated at each of 7 delays (1 week to 25 years). Opioid-dependent participants were given a second series of choices between immediate and delayed heroin, using the same procedures (i.e., the amount of delayed heroin was that which could be purchased with $1,000). Opioid-dependent participants discounted delayed monetary rewards significantly more than did non-drug-using participants. Furthermore opioid-dependent participants discounted delayed heroin significantly more than delayed money.Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 09/1997; 5(3):256-62. · 2.55 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Two studies compared participants, distinguished by their typical alcohol consumption, on the degree to which they discounted the value of delayed, hypothetical amounts of money. Heavy social drinkers in Study 1 and problem drinkers in Study 2 both showed greater temporal discounting than light social drinkers; this difference was stronger in Study 2. Both studies found that a hyperbolic function described temporal discounting more accurately than an exponential function. These results are consistent with extending behavioral theories of intertemporal choice to characterize the determinants of alcohol consumption. The discounting differences also are consistent with more general behavioral economic and economic theories of addiction, although the hyperbolic functional form is inconsistent with the exponential discounting function in economic theory. The drinker groups also differed on impulsiveness and time orientation questionnaires, with light drinkers being less impulsive and more future oriented; however, these measures were not strongly correlated with the measure of temporal discounting.Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 09/1998; 6(3):292-305. · 2.55 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Both impulsivity and novelty-seeking have been suggested to be behavioral markers of the propensity to take addictive drugs. However, their relevance for the vulnerability to compulsively seek and take drugs, which is a hallmark feature of addiction, is unknown. We report here that, whereas high reactivity to novelty predicts the propensity to initiate cocaine self-administration, high impulsivity predicts the development of addiction-like behavior in rats, including persistent or compulsive drug-taking in the face of aversive outcomes. This study shows experimental evidence that a shift from impulsivity to compulsivity occurs during the development of addictive behavior, which provides insights into the genesis and neural mechanisms of drug addiction.Science 07/2008; 320(5881):1352-5. · 31.20 Impact Factor