[Adverse drug reactions or adverse events of Chaihu Injection: a systematic review].
ABSTRACT Chaihu Injection (CI), which is widely used in treatment of febrile diseases, is an aqueous solution of Chaihu (Radix Bupleuri Chinensis) or Nanchaihu (Radix Bupleuri Scorzonerifolii) prepared by steam distillation.
This study aims at finding out the possible causes for adverse drug reaction or adverse event (ADR/AE) caused by CI and assessing its safety based on existing evidence.
Manual search was not conducted. Electronic search was conducted by two authors in China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) database and Chongqing VIP database (VIP). The search ended in June 30th, 2009.
Studies of ADR/AE induced by CI were collected comprehensively without considering language of literature and outcome indicators. Search results were not limited by patient's age, gender, race, primary disease, etc. Interventions were using CI alone or CI combined with other drugs (Chinese herbal medicine decoction or other drugs containing Chaihu were excluded).
Two authors conducted data extraction independently. Microsoft Excel software was used to develop data extraction forms. Because of heterogeneity of the studies, only a descriptive analysis was conducted.
Totally 83 studies with 203 cases were included in this review. Without the yield data and total amount of using, we cannot tell the incidence of ADR/AE induced by CI as well as assess the risk and safety of CI. The constituent ratio of severe cases was higher in children and old people than in other age groups. For most intramuscular cases, ADR/AE happened in 30 min after injection (constituent ratio of cumulative incidence in 30 min was 93.8%); for intravenously guttae patients, 4 cases of ADR/AE happened in the process of infusion; for first users, constituent ratio of cumulative incidence in 30 min and constituent ratio of cumulative incidence of severe cases in 30 min were higher than cases who had used CI before. Most ADRs/AEs were caused by incorrect use of CI, such as excessive doses (5 cases), intravenously guttae administration (6 cases), and violating incompatibility rules (7 cases). The incidence ratios of ADR and AE for severe and mild cases were 1.7:1 and 1.1:1, respectively; the ratios of the three relevant levels described as definitely related, most probably related and possibly related in the two types (severe and mild) of cases were 25:14:5 and 44:9:16, respectively.
Present evidence with low level shows that incorrect use is the main cause of ADR/AE of CI. Whether CI is proper for children and old people still needs further research. Training for correct use of CI is necessary for medical workers. Much improvement in reporting ADR/AE based on "Recommendations for Reporting Adverse Drug Reactions and Adverse Events of Traditional Chinese Medicine" is in need.
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ABSTRACT: Saikosaponin A (SSA) is a major triterpenoid saponin isolated from Radix bupleuri (RB), a widely used Chinese traditional medicine to treat various inflammation-related diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity, as well as the molecular mechanism of SSA in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In this study, we demonstrated that SSA markedly inhibits the expression of certain immune-related cytotoxic factors, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. It also significantly upregulates the expression of IL-10, an important anti-inflammatory cytokine, suggesting its anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated macrophages. We further demonstrated that SSA inhibits the activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway by suppressing the phosphorylation of inhibitory NF-κB inhibitor α (IκBα) and thus holding p65 NF-κB in the cytoplasm to prevent its translocation to the nucleus. In addition, SSA also inhibits the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway by downregulating the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (c-JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), the three key components of the MAPK family. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that SSA has an anti-inflammatory effect by regulating inflammatory mediators and suppressing the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.Experimental and therapeutic medicine 05/2013; 5(5):1345-1350. · 0.94 Impact Factor