Antipsychotic occupancy of dopamine receptors in schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT Antipsychotic drugs were introduced in the early 50s on the basis of clinical observations in patients with schizophrenia. Experimental studies later revealed that antagonism at the D(2) dopamine receptor is a common characteristic of all antipsychotic drugs. In the 80s, the advent of brain imaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET) allowed for direct noninvasive studies of drug binding in treated patients. The concept receptor occupancy is defined as the fraction (%) of a receptor population that is occupied during treatment with an unlabelled drug. With regard to antipsychotic drugs, the radioligand [(11) C]-raclopride has been the most widely used for binding to the D(2) /D(3) -dopamine receptors. The present review discusses the contribution from molecular imaging to the current understanding of mechanism of action (MoA) of antipsychotic drugs. Consistent initial PET-findings of high D2-receptor occupancy in the striatum of patients responding to different antipsychotic drug treatments provided clinical support for the dopamine hypothesis of antipsychotic drug action. It has subsequently been demonstrated that patients with extrapyramidal syndromes (EPS) have higher occupancy (above 80%) than patients with good response but no EPS (65-80%). The PET-defined interval for optimal antipsychotic drug treatment has been implemented in the evolvement of dose recommendations for classical as well as more recently developed drugs. Another consistent finding is lower D(2) -occupancy during treatment with the prototype atypical antipsychotic clozapine. The MoA of clozapine remains to be fully understood and may include nondopaminergic mechanisms. A general limitation is that currently available PET-radioligands are not selective for any of the five dopamine receptor subtypes. Current attempts at developing such ligands may provide the tools required to refine further the MoA of antipsychotic drugs.
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ABSTRACT: ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The convolvulaceaArgyreia nervosa(Burm. f.)is well known as an important medical plant in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine and it is used in numerous diseases (e.g. nervousness, bronchitis, tuberculosis, arthritis, diabetes). Additionally, in the Indian state of Assam and in other regions Argyreia nervosa is part of the traditional tribal medicine (e.g. the Santali people, the Lodhas, and others). In the western hemisphere, Argyreia nervosa has been brought in attention as so called "legal high". In this context, the seeds are used as source of the psychoactive ergotalkaloid lysergic acid amide (LSA),which is considered the main active ingredient. AIM OF THE STUDY: As the chemical structure of LSA is very similar to that of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), the seeds of Argyreia nervosa(Burm. f.) are often considered as natural substitute of LSD. In the present study, LSA and LSD have been compared concerning their potential pharmacological profiles based on the receptor binding affinities since our recent human study with four volunteers on p.o. application of Argyreia nervosa seeds has led to some ambiguous effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In an initial step computer-aided in silico prediction models on receptor binding were employed to screen for serotonin, norepinephrine,dopamine, muscarine, andhistamine receptor subtypes as potential targets for LSA. In addition, this screening was extended to accompanying ergotalkaloids of Argyreia nervosa(Burm. f.). In a verification step, selected LSA screening results were confirmed by in vitro binding assays with some extensions to LSD. RESULTS: In the in silico model LSA exhibited the highest affinity with a pKi of about 8.0 at α1A, and α1B. Clear affinity with pKi>7 was predicted for 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT6, 5-HT7, and D2. From these receptors the 5-HT1D subtype exhibited the highest pKi with 7.98 in the prediction model. From the other ergotalkaloids, agroclavine and festuclavine also seemed to be highly affine to the 5-HT1D-receptor with pKi>8. In general, the ergotalkaloids of Argyreia nervosa seem to prefer serotonin and dopamine receptors (pKi>7). However, with exception of ergometrine/ergometrinine only for 5-HT3A, and histamine H2 and H4 no affinities were predicted. Compared to LSD, LSA exhibited lower binding affinities in the in vitro bindingassays for all tested receptor subtypes. However, with a pKi of 7.99, 7.56, and 7.21 a clear affinity for 5-HT1A, 5-HT2, and α2 could be demonstrated. For DA receptor subtypes and the α1-receptor the pKi ranged from 6.05 to 6.85. CONCLUSION: Since the psychedelic activity of LSA in the recent human study was weak and although LSA from Argyreia nervosa is often considered as natural exchange for LSD, LSA should not be regarded as LSD-like psychedelic drug. However, vegetative side effects and psychotropic effects may be triggered by serotonin or dopamine receptor subtypes.Journal of ethnopharmacology 05/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly used in drug discovery and development for evaluation of CNS drug disposition and for studies of disease biomarkers to monitor drug effects on brain pathology. The quantitative analysis of PET data is based on kinetic modeling of radioactivity concentrations in plasma and brain tissue compartments. A number of quantitative methods of analysis have been developed that allow the determination of parameters describing drug pharmacokinetics and interaction with target binding sites in the brain. The optimal method of quantification depends on the properties of the radiolabeled drug or radioligand and the binding site studied. We here review the most frequently used methods for quantification of PET data in relation to CNS drug discovery and development. The utility of PET kinetic modeling in the development of novel CNS drugs is illustrated by examples from studies of the brain kinetic properties of radiolabeled drug molecules.Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics 05/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor
- Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine (Formerly Current Pharmacogenomics) 09/2012; 10(3):182-184.