Age of onset and sexual orientation in transsexual males and females.
ABSTRACT With regard to transsexual developments, onset age (OA) appears to be the starting point of different psychosexual pathways.
To explore differences between transsexual adults with an early vs. late OA.
Data were collected within the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence using the Dutch Biographic Questionnaire on Transsexualism (Biografische Vragenlijst voor Transseksuelen) and a self-constructed score sheet according to the DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) criteria of Gender Identity Disorder (GID) and Gender Identity Disorder in Childhood (GIDC). One hundred seventy participants were included in the analyses.
Transsexual adults who, in addition to their GID diagnosis, also fulfilled criteria A and B of GIDC ("a strong cross-gender identification,"persistent discomfort about her or his assigned sex") retrospectively were considered as having an early onset (EO). Those who fulfilled neither criteria A nor B of GIDC were considered as having a late onset (LO). Participants who only fulfilled criterion A or B of GIDC were considered a residual (RES) group.
The majority of female to males (FtMs) appeared to have an early OA (EO = 60 [77.9%] compared to LO = 10 [13%] and to RES = 7 [9.1%]). Within male to females (MtFs), percentages of EO and LO developments were more similar (EO = 36 [38.7%], LO = 45 [48.4%], RES = 12 [12.9%]). FtMs presented to gender clinics at an earlier age than MtFs (28.04 to 36.75). The number of EO vs. LO transsexual adults differed from country to country (Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway).
OA has a discriminative value for transsexual developments and it would appear that retrospective diagnosis of GIDC criteria is a valid method of assessment. Differences in OA and sex ratio exist between European countries.
- SourceAvailable from: Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A transsexual course of development that starts before puberty (early onset) or during or after puberty, respectively (late onset), may lead to diverse challenges in coping with sexual activity. The authors explored the sexual behavior of 380 adult male-to-female and female-to-male individuals diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria who had not yet undergone gender-confirming interventions. Data originated from the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence Initiative, conducted in Belgium, Germany, The Netherlands, and Norway. Information on outcome variables was collected using self-administered questionnaires at first clinical presentation. Compared with late-onset male-to-females, early-onset individuals tended to show sexual attraction toward males more frequently (50.5%), involve genitals less frequently in partner-related sexual activity, and consider penile sensations and orgasm as more negative. Early-onset female-to-males predominantly reported sexual attraction toward females (84.0%), whereas those with a late-onset more frequently showed other sexual attractions (41.7%). The study (a) shows that early- and late-onset male-to-females differ considerably with regard to coping strategies involving their body during sexual relations and (b) reveals initial insights into developmental pathways of late-onset female-to-males.Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy 01/2014; 40(5):457-71. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The odorous steroid androstadienone, a putative male chemo-signal, was previously reported to evoke sex differences in hypothalamic activation in adult heterosexual men and women. In order to investigate whether puberty modulated this sex difference in response to androstadienone, we measured the hypothalamic responsiveness to this chemo-signal in 39 pre-pubertal and 41 adolescent boys and girls by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. We then investigated whether 36 pre-pubertal children and 38 adolescents diagnosed with gender dysphoria (GD; DSM-5) exhibited sex-atypical (in accordance with their experienced gender), rather than sex-typical (in accordance with their natal sex) hypothalamic activations during olfactory stimulation with androstadienone. We found that the sex difference in responsiveness to androstadienone was already present in pre-pubertal control children and thus likely developed during early perinatal development instead of during sexual maturation. Adolescent girls and boys with GD both responded remarkably like their experienced gender, thus sex-atypical. In contrast, pre-pubertal girls with GD showed neither a typically male nor female hypothalamic activation pattern and pre-pubertal boys with GD had hypothalamic activations in response to androstadienone that were similar to control boys, thus sex-typical. We present here a unique data set of boys and girls diagnosed with GD at two different developmental stages, showing that these children possess certain sex-atypical functional brain characteristics and may have undergone atypical sexual differentiation of the brain.Frontiers in Endocrinology 01/2014; 5:60.
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ABSTRACT: Incidence and prevalence of applications in Sweden for legal and surgical sex reassignment were examined over a 50-year period (1960-2010), including the legal and surgical reversal applications. A total of 767 people (289 natal females and 478 natal males) applied for legal and surgical sex reassignment. Out of these, 89 % (252 female-to-males [FM] and 429 male-to-females [MF]) received a new legal gender and underwent sex reassignment surgery (SRS). A total of 25 individuals (7 natal females and 18 natal males), equaling 3.3 %, were denied a new legal gender and SRS. The remaining withdrew their application, were on a waiting list for surgery, or were granted partial treatment. The incidence of applications was calculated and stratified over four periods between 1972 and 2010. The incidence increased significantly from 0.16 to 0.42/100,000/year (FM) and from 0.23 to 0.73/100,000/year (MF). The most pronounced increase occurred after 2000. The proportion of FM individuals 30 years or older at the time of application remained stable around 30 %. In contrast, the proportion of MF individuals 30 years or older increased from 37 % in the first decade to 60 % in the latter three decades. The point prevalence at December 2010 for individuals who applied for a new legal gender was for FM 1:13,120 and for MF 1:7,750. The FM:MF sex ratio fluctuated but was 1:1.66 for the whole study period. There were 15 (5 MF and 10 MF) regret applications corresponding to a 2.2 % regret rate for both sexes. There was a significant decline of regrets over the time period.Archives of Sexual Behavior 05/2014; · 3.53 Impact Factor