Age of onset and sexual orientation in transsexual males and females.
ABSTRACT With regard to transsexual developments, onset age (OA) appears to be the starting point of different psychosexual pathways.
To explore differences between transsexual adults with an early vs. late OA.
Data were collected within the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence using the Dutch Biographic Questionnaire on Transsexualism (Biografische Vragenlijst voor Transseksuelen) and a self-constructed score sheet according to the DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) criteria of Gender Identity Disorder (GID) and Gender Identity Disorder in Childhood (GIDC). One hundred seventy participants were included in the analyses.
Transsexual adults who, in addition to their GID diagnosis, also fulfilled criteria A and B of GIDC ("a strong cross-gender identification,"persistent discomfort about her or his assigned sex") retrospectively were considered as having an early onset (EO). Those who fulfilled neither criteria A nor B of GIDC were considered as having a late onset (LO). Participants who only fulfilled criterion A or B of GIDC were considered a residual (RES) group.
The majority of female to males (FtMs) appeared to have an early OA (EO = 60 [77.9%] compared to LO = 10 [13%] and to RES = 7 [9.1%]). Within male to females (MtFs), percentages of EO and LO developments were more similar (EO = 36 [38.7%], LO = 45 [48.4%], RES = 12 [12.9%]). FtMs presented to gender clinics at an earlier age than MtFs (28.04 to 36.75). The number of EO vs. LO transsexual adults differed from country to country (Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway).
OA has a discriminative value for transsexual developments and it would appear that retrospective diagnosis of GIDC criteria is a valid method of assessment. Differences in OA and sex ratio exist between European countries.
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ABSTRACT: In Western populations, male gender atypicality (i.e., cross-gender behavior and identity) and male androphilia (i.e., sexual attraction to adult males) tend to cluster in particular families. Here, we examined whether this familial clustering effect extended to non-Western populations by examining the genealogical relationships of 17 Samoan transgendered androphilic males, known locally as fa'afafine, who were born in the same rural Samoan village. Specifically, we compared the genealogies of these 17 fa'afafine and those of 17 age-matched comparison males born in the same village. In addition to familial clustering, we examined birth order, sibship sex ratio, and sibship size. The fa'afafine were significantly later born than the comparison males and clustered into five and 16 distinct lineages, respectively, which constituted a statistically significant degree of family clustering among the 17 fa'afafine. Hence, the present study indicated that transgendered male androphilia is familial in this particular Samoan village, thus adding to a growing literature demonstrating that male androphilia and gender atypicality have consistent developmental correlates across populations. Discussion focused on the possible bases of this familial clustering effect and directions for future research.Archives of Sexual Behavior 11/2012; · 3.53 Impact Factor
- Archives of Sexual Behavior 07/2013; · 3.53 Impact Factor