Ion channels on microglia: therapeutic targets for neuroprotection.
ABSTRACT Under pathological conditions microglia (resident CNS immune cells) become activated, and produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines: molecules that can contribute to axon demyelination and neuron death. Because some microglia functions can exacerbate CNS disorders, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis, and several retinal diseases, controlling their activation might ameliorate immune-mediated CNS disorders. A growing body of evidence now points to ion channels on microglia as contributing to the above neuropathologies. For example, the ATP-gated P2X7 purinergic receptor cation channel is up-regulated around amyloid β-peptide plaques in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and co-localizes to microglia and astrocytes. Upregulation of the P2X7 receptor subtype on microglia occurs also following spinal cord injury and after ischemia in the cerebral cortex of rats, while P2X7 receptor-like immunoreactivity is increased in activated microglial cells of multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis spinal cord. Utilizing neuron/microglia co-cultures as an in vitro model for neuroinflammation, P2X7 receptor activation on microglia appears necessary for microglial cell-mediated injury of neurons. A second example can be found in the chloride intracellular channel 1 (CLIC1), whose expression is related to macrophage activation, undergoes translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane (activation) of microglia exposed to amyloid β-peptide, and participates in amyloid β-peptide-induced neurotoxicity through the generation of reactive oxygen species. A final example is the small-conductance Ca2+/calmodulin-activated K+ channel KCNN4/KCa3.1/SK4/IK1, which is highly expressed in rat microglia. Lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia are capable of killing adjacent neurons in co-culture, and show markedly reduced toxicity when treated with an inhibitor of KCa3.1 channels. Moreover, blocking KCa3.1 channels mitigated the neurotoxicity of amyloid β-peptide-stimulated microglia. Excessive microglial cell activation and production of potentially neurotoxic molecules, mediated by ion channels, may thus constitute viable targets for the discovery and development of neurodegenerative disease therapeutics. This chapter will review recent data that reflect the prevailing approaches targeting neuroinflammation as a pathophysiological process contributing to the onset or progression of neurodegenerative diseases, with a focus on microglial ion channels and their neuroprotective potential.
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ABSTRACT: Neurodegeneration and synaptic dysfunction observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with progressive decrease in neuronal activity. Here, we investigated the effects of Notoginsenoside R1 (NTR1), a major saponin isolated from Panax notoginseng, on neuronal excitability and assessed the beneficial effects of NTR1 on synaptic and memory deficits under the Aβ-enriched conditions in vivo and in vitro. We assessed the effects of NTR1 on neuronal excitability, membrane ion channel activity, and synaptic plasticity in acute hippocampal slices by combining electrophysiological extracellular and intracellular recording techniques. We found that NTR1 increased the membrane excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices by lowering the spike threshold possibly through a mechanism involving in the inhibition of voltage-gated K(+) currents. In addition, NTR1 reversed Aβ1-42 oligomers-induced impairments in long term potentiation (LTP). Reducing spontaneous firing activity with 10 nM tetrodotoxin (TTX) abolished the protective effect of NTR1 against Aβ-induced LTP impairment. Finally, oral administration of NTR1 improved the learning performance of the APP/PS1 mouse model of AD. Our work reveals a novel mechanism involving in modulation of cell strength, which contributes to the protective effects of NTR1 against Aβ neurotoxicity.Scientific Reports 09/2014; 4:6352. DOI:10.1038/srep06352 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Brain infarction causes tissue death by ischemia due to occlusion of the cerebral vessels and recent work has shown that post stroke inflammation contributes significantly to the development of the ischemic pathology. Because secondary damage by brain inflammation may have longer therapeutic time window compared to the rescue of primary damage following arterial occlusion, controlling inflammation would be an obvious therapeutic target. A substantial amount of experimentally progress in this area has been made in recent years. However, it is difficult to elucidate the precise mechanisms of the inflammatory responses following ischemic stroke because inflammation is a complex series of interactions between inflammatory cells and molecules, all of which could be either detrimental or beneficial. We review recent advances in neuroinflammation and the modulation of inflammatory signaling pathways in brain ischemia. Potential targets for treatment of ischemic stroke will also be covered. The roles of the immune system and brain damage versus repair will help to clarify how immune modulation may treat stroke.Current Medicinal Chemistry 02/2015; 22(10). · 3.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An insult to the brain (such as the first seizure) causes excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, and production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). ROS and RNS produced during status epilepticus (SE) overwhelm the mitochondrial natural antioxidant defense mechanism. This leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and damage to the mitochondrial DNA. This in turn affects synthesis of various enzyme complexes that are involved in electron transport chain. Resultant effects that occur during epileptogenesis include lipid peroxidation, reactive gliosis, hippocampal neurodegeneration, reorganization of neural networks, and hypersynchronicity. These factors predispose the brain to spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS), which ultimately establish into temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This review discusses some of these issues. Though antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are beneficial to control/suppress seizures, their long term usage has been shown to increase ROS/RNS in animal models and human patients. In established TLE, ROS/RNS are shown to be harmful as they can increase the susceptibility to SRS. Further, in this paper, we review briefly the data from animal models and human TLE patients on the adverse effects of antiepileptic medications and the plausible ameliorating effects of antioxidants as an adjunct therapy.BioMed Research International 2015:745613. DOI:10.1155/2015/745613 · 2.71 Impact Factor