Recent advances in DAPYs and related analogues as HIV-1 NNRTIs.
ABSTRACT HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) nowadays represent most promising anti-AIDS drugs that specifically inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). They have a unique antiviral potency, high specificity and low cytotoxicity. However, to a great extent, the efficacy of HIV-1 NNRTIs is compounded by rapid emergence of drug resistant virus strains, which calls for continuous efforts to develop novel HIV-1 NNRTIs. Diarylpyrimidine (DAPY) derivatives, one family of NNRTIs with superior activity profiles against wild-type HIV-1 and mutant strains, have attracted considerable attention over the past few years. Among the potent lead DAPY compounds, etravirine was approved by FDA in January 2008, and its analogue rilpivirine (TMC278) has advanced to phase III clinical trials. The successful development of DAPYs results from a multidisciplinary approach involving traditional medicinal chemistry, structural biology, crystallography and computational chemistry. Recently, a number of novel characteristics of DAPYs including conformational flexibility, positional adaptability, key hydrogen bonds and specifically targeting conserved residues of RT, have been identified, providing valuable avenues for further optimization and development of new DAPY analogues as promising anti-HIV drug candidates. In this review, we first present a brief historical account of the medicinal chemistry of the DAPY NNRTIs, then focus on the extensive structural modifications, SAR studies, and binding mode analysis based on crystallographic and molecular modeling. Other structural related NNRTI scaffolds will also be reviewed.
SourceAvailable from: Shuang-Xi Gu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: As a continuing and exploratory work on diarylpyrimidines (DAPYs) as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors, bulky and electron-rich naphthyl was introduced into the structure of DAPYs to replace the phenyl left wing of DAPYs, which is aimed to improve the π–π stacking interactions between inhibitors and some aromatic amino acid residues within the binding pocket of RT. The title compound 1a, with a 1-naphthyl left wing, displayed good inhibitory activity against wild-type HIV-1 (EC50 = 0.071 μM), along with moderate inhibitory activity against HIV-2 (EC50 = 6.5 μM).Medicinal Chemistry Research 01/2014; 24(1). DOI:10.1007/s00044-014-1119-5 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have developed a series of N2-(1-(substituted-aryl)piperidin-4-yl)-N6-mesityl-9H-purine-2,6-diamine derivatives as potent antiviral agents. Preliminary biological evaluation indicated that nearly half of them possessed remarkable HIV inhibitory potencies in cellular assays. In particular, FZJ13 appeared to be the most notable one, which displayed anti-HIV-1 activity compared to 3TC. Moreover, an unexpected finding was that FZJ05 displayed significant potency against influenza A/H1N1 (strain A/PR/8/34) in MDCK cells with EC50 values much lower than those of ribavirin, amantadine and rimantadine. The results suggest that these novel purine derivatives have the potential to be further developed as new therapeutic agents against HIV-1 or influenza virus.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Chemical Biology & Drug Design 01/2015; DOI:10.1111/cbdd.12520 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In our arduous efforts to develop new potent HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NNRTIs), novel piperidine-linked [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antiviral activities in MT-4 cell cultures. Biological results showed that all of the title compounds displayed moderate to excellent activities against wild-type (wt) HIV-1 strain (IIIB) with EC50 values ranging from 8.1 nM to 2284 nM in a cell-based assay. Among them, the most promising analog 7d possessed an EC50 value of 8.1 nM against wt HIV-1, which was much more potent than the reference drugs DDI, 3 TC, NVP and DLV. Additionally, 7d demonstrated weak activity against the double mutant HIV-1 strain (K103N + Y181C), and was more efficient than NVP in a RT inhibition assay. Besides, some measured and calculated physicochemical properties of 7d, like log P and water solubility, as well as the structure-activity relationships (SARs) analysis have been discussed in detail. Furthermore, the binding mode of the active compound 7d was rationalized by molecular simulation studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 01/2015; 92C:754-765. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.01.042 · 3.43 Impact Factor