A comparison of reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of bispyridinium acetylcholinesterase reactivator KR-22934 with the oxime K203 and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, HI-6) in tabun-poisoned rats and mice.
ABSTRACT The potency of bispyridinium acetylcholinesterase reactivator KR-22934 in reactivating tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and reducing tabun-induced lethal toxic effects was compared with the oxime K203 and commonly used oximes. Studies determining percentage of reactivation of tabun-inhibited blood and tissue acetylcholinesterase in rats showed that the reactivating efficacy of KR-22934 was slightly higher than the reactivating efficacy of K203 and roughly corresponded to the reactivating efficacy of obidoxime and trimedoxime in blood and diaphragm. On the other hand, the oxime KR-22934 was not able to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in the brain. The therapeutic efficacy of all oximes studied approximately corresponded to their reactivating efficacy. Based on the results, one can conclude that the oxime KR-22934 is not suitable for the replacement of commonly used oximes for the antidotal treatment of tabun poisoning in spite of its potency to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in the peripheral compartment (blood, diaphragm).
Article: Organophosphate poisoning.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The present review discusses the structure of the anticholinesterase organophosphates (OPs), which are used predominantly as insecticides. OP poisoning can occur in a variety of situations and can be accidental or suicidal. It is common in developing countries. The cholinergic syndrome is caused by acetylcholinesterase inhibition, and diagnosis is based on the clinical signs and symptoms as well as the measurement of inhibition of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase and/or plasma cholinesterase activity. Antidotal treatment is with atropine, an enzyme reactivator such as pralidoxime and diazepam. Anticholinesterase OPs may produce effects other than the acute cholinergic syndrome, including the intermediate syndrome. Later effects may include organophosphorus-induced delayed neuropathy. Certain OPs are exploited for their anticholinesterase effects, including defoliants such as 'DEF', herbicides such as glyphosate, fire retardants and industrial intermediates. The toxicology of this group is heterogeneous and they may or may not possess anticholinesterase activity.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 02/1993; 58(1):51-66. · 7.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the therapeutic efficacy of a new acetylcholinesterase reactivator, designated BI-6 (1-(2-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-4-(4-carbamoylpyridinium )-2-butene dibromide), with presently used oximes (pralidoxime, obidoxime, methoxime) and H-oximes (HI-6, HLö-7) by in vitro and in vivo methods. In vitro, methoxime seems to be the most efficacious reactivator of GF agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase because the phosphorylation of acetylcholinesterase by GF agent markedly increases its affinity for the enzyme. The oxime BI-6 is more efficacious than other presently used oximes (pralidoxime, obidoxime) but its reactivating efficacy does not reach the efficacy of H-oximes tested. On the other hand, obidoxime and pralidoxime appear to be very poor reactivators of GF agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase because the phosphonylation of acetylcholinesterase by GF agent markedly decreases their affinity to the enzyme. In vivo, H oximes (HI-6, HLö-7) are the most efficacious antidotes for the treatment of acute poisoning with GF agent in rats while the presently used oximes such as pralidoxime and obidoxime are practically ineffective. BI-6 and methoxime are more efficacious than pralidoxime and obidoxime, nevertheless their therapeutic efficacy does not reach the efficacy of H oximes. Our results show that the ability of oximes to reactivate GF agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in vitro usually corresponds to their therapeutic effects against GF agent in vivo.Pharmacology & Toxicology 02/1999; 84(1):41-5.
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ABSTRACT: The treatment of poisoning by highly toxic organophosphorus compounds (nerve agents) is unsatisfactory. Until now, the efficacy of new potential antidotes has primarily been evaluated in animals. However, the extrapolation of these results to humans is hampered by species differences. Since oximes are believed to act primarily through reactivation of inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and erythrocyte AChE is regarded to be a good marker for the synaptic enzyme, the reactivating potency can be investigated with human erythrocyte AChE in vitro. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of various oximes at concentrations therapeutically relevant in humans to reactivate human erythrocyte AChE inhibited by different nerve agents. Isolated human erythrocyte AChE was inhibited with soman, sarin, cyclosarin, tabun or VX for 30 min and reactivated in the absence of inhibitory activity over 5-60 min by obidoxime, pralidoxime, HI 6 or HLö 7 (10 and 30 microM). The AChE activity was determined photometrically. The reactivation of human AChE by oximes was dependent on the organophosphate used. After soman, sarin, cyclosarin, or VX the reactivating potency decreased in the order HLö 7 > HI 6 > obidoxime > pralidoxime. Obidoxime and pralidoxime were weak reactivators of cyclosarin-inhibited AChE. Only obidoxime and HLö 7 reactivated tabun-inhibited AChE partially (20%), while pralidoxime and HI 6 were almost ineffective (5%). Therefore, HLö 7 may serve as a broad-spectrum reactivator in nerve agent poisoning at doses therapeutically relevant in humans.Archive für Toxikologie 03/1998; 72(4):237-43. · 5.22 Impact Factor