Elevated plasma prolactin in abstinent methamphetamine-dependent subjects.
ABSTRACT Methamphetamine (MA) use disorders are pervasive global social problems that produce large medical and public health burdens. Abnormalities in pituitary hormonal regulation have been observed in preclinical models of substance abuse and in human substance abusers. They have, however, not been studied before in MA-dependent human subjects.
To determine if MA-dependent research volunteers differ from healthy control subjects in plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, or prolactin, or in pituitary dopamine D(2) receptor availability during early abstinence from MA.
MA-dependent subjects (N = 31), who were not seeking treatment, resided on an inpatient ward for up to 5 weeks. Abstinence was confirmed by daily urine drug screening. Venous blood was sampled for plasma hormone levels, and positron emission tomography with [(18)F]fallypride was performed to determine dopamine D(2) receptor availability during the first week of abstinence. Venous blood was sampled again for hormone levels during the fourth week of abstinence. Matched healthy volunteers (N = 23) participated as a comparison group. Results: MA-dependent and healthy comparison subjects did not differ in plasma ACTH or cortisol levels, but had an elevated plasma prolactin at both the first week and fourth week of abstinence. There was no group difference in pituitary dopamine D(2) receptor availability.
MA-dependent individuals have abnormalities in prolactin regulation, which is not likely due to alterations in pituitary dopamine D(2) receptor availability. Scientific significance: MA dependence is associated with elevated prolactin levels, which may contribute to medical comorbidity in afflicted individuals.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Edythe D London, May 30, 2015
Journal of Addictions Nursing 04/2012; 23(2):137-40. DOI:10.3109/10884602.2012.669121 · 0.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitors have been developed as a promising treatment approach for cocaine dependence. However, the stimulant effects of DAT inhibitors have the potential to disrupt sleep patterns, and the influence of long-term treatment on dopamine neurochemistry is still unknown. The objectives of this study were to (1) explore the stimulant-related effects of chronic DAT inhibitor (RTI-336) treatment on motor activity and sleep-like measures in male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n = 4) and (2) to determine the effect of drug treatment on prolactin and cortisol levels. Subjects were fitted with a collar-mounted activity monitor to evaluate their motor activity, with 4 days of baseline recording preceding 21 days of daily saline or RTI-336 (1 mg/kg/day; intramuscular) injections. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to and following chronic treatment to assess hormone levels. RTI-336 produced a significant increase in locomotor activity at the end of the daytime period compared to saline administration. During the 3-week treatment period, sleep efficiency was decreased and the fragmentation index and latency to sleep onset were significantly increased. Hormone levels were not changed throughout the study. Chronic treatment with RTI-336 has a mild but significant stimulant effect, as evidenced by the significant increase in activity during the evening period which may cause minor disruptions in sleep measures.Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 10/2011; 20(2):77-83. DOI:10.1037/a0026034 · 2.63 Impact Factor