Protective effect of L-carnitine versus amifostine against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.
ABSTRACT We aimed to compare the protective effect of L-carnitine (CAR) and amifostine (AMF) against cisplatin (CDDP)-induced nephrotoxicity through biochemical markers and histopathological evaluation. Fifty-seven Wistar albino male rats were randomly classified into six groups, which were AMF+CDDP (n = 11; 200 mg/kg AMF 30 min prior to 7 mg/kg CDDP), CAR+CDDP (n = 11; 300 mg/kg CAR 30 min prior to 7 mg/kg CDDP), CDDP (n = 11; 1 mL/kg isotonic saline 30 min prior to 7 mg/kg CDDP), AMF (n = 8; 200 mg/kg AMF alone), CAR (n = 8; 300 mg/kg CAR alone), and control (n = 8; 1 mL/kg isotonic saline alone). All drugs were given intraperitoneally. Five days after medication, animals were killed, and samples of blood and kidney tissues were collected for biochemical and histopathological evaluation. The serum urea level was highest in AMF+CDDP group among CDDP-applied groups without statistical significance (median, range: 88, 56-21 mg/dL; P > 0.05). There was no statistical significance among CDDP-applied groups in terms of creatinine level (P > 0.05). In the AMF+CDDP group, the median glomerular, tubular, and tubulointerstitial inflammatory damage scores were significantly higher than the other CDDP-applied groups (P < 0.001). The difference between CAR+CDDP and CDDP groups was not statistically significant in terms of renal damage scores. AMF+CDDP group had significantly higher median total nephrotoxicity score than all the other groups (P < 0.001). To conclude, AMF or CAR has no protective effect on CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity. Furthermore, our findings suggest that application of AMF before CDDP may enhance CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity histopathologically.
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ABSTRACT: Amifostine protects normal tissue from the cytotoxic damage induced by radiation and chemotherapy. In this study, 39 consecutive newly diagnosed children with osteosarcoma were assessed; 20 received amifostine and 19 did not. The chemotherapy regimen included an induction phase of three cycles of cisplatin (100 mg/m2), carboplatin (500 mg/m2), and doxorubicin (60 mg/m2), followed by surgery. Alternating cycles of cisplatin/ifosfamide (9 mg/m2), ifosfamide/doxorubicin, carboplatin/doxorubicin, and ifosfamide/carboplatin were administered every 3 weeks to complete 26 weeks of treatment. Amifostine was administered 15 minutes before the infusions of cisplatin and carboplatin in a total of 193 infusions. Side effects during infusions and renal, hearing, and bone marrow toxicities were evaluated and compared between the two groups. Hypotension was observed in 28 (14.5%) infusions. No patient required discontinuation of therapy. Fewer than two episodes of vomiting occurred in 130 (71%) infusions and two to five episodes occurred in 51 (28%) infusions, and no patient had grade 4 toxicity. There was no difference between the two groups regarding renal toxicity (creatinine clearance). Neutropenia and leukopenia were significantly less frequent in the amifostine group. No difference was observed in platelet and hearing toxicities. Amifostine was well tolerated in doses of 740 mg/m2 in children and adolescents, and myelotoxicity was less severe in the amifostine group. This was a pilot study for further evaluation in a larger randomized trial.Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 02/2002; 24(3):188-91. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The nephropathologic effects of cis-diammine-dichloroplatinum (II) are described. Male F344 rats, 6 weeks of age, were injected ip with cis-diammine-dichloroplatinum (II)(NSC-119875) at doses from 0.5–12 mg/kg. The LD50 was 7.7 mg/kg. After one injection, many rats lost weight by 24 hr and died from 2–7 days later, depending on the dose, whereas rats receiving lower doses recovered and gained weight by 7–10 days. Increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations and renal weights reached a peak on Day 5 and returned to control values by Day 15. Histologically, acute degenerative and necrotizing lesions involved tubules in the outer stripe of the renal medulla and regeneration was noted by 5 days. Death of rats after one or five daily injections was attributed to the necrotizing enteritis, thymic atrophy, lymphocytic and bone marrow depletion, and renal lesions. Weekly injections resulted in uremia and development of markedly cystic kidneys. The results indicate that the F344 rat is a sensitive strain for the study of platinum nephrotoxicity.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 01/1977; 38(3):535-47. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with oxidative stress that promotes production of reactive oxygen species. L-Carnitine is a cofactor required for transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix. Recent research has shown that some clinical conditions (i.e., anorexia, chronic fatigue, coronary heart disease, diphtheria, hypoglycemia, and male infertility) benefit from exogenous supplementation of L-carnitine. The aim of this study was to examine the role of L-carnitine in protecting the aorta, heart, corpus cavernosum, and kidney tissues against oxidative damage in a rat model of CRF. Male Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to either the CRF group or the sham-operated control group, which had received saline or L-carnitine (500 mg/kg, i.p.) for 4 weeks. CRF was evaluated by BUN and serum creatinine measurements. Aorta and corporeal tissues were used for contractility studies or stored along with heart and kidney tissues for the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels. Plasma MDA, GSH levels and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were also studied. In the CRF group, the contraction and the relaxation of aorta and corpus cavernosum samples decreased significantly compared with controls and were partially reversed by L-carnitine treatment. In the CRF group, there were significant increases in tissue MDA with marked reductions in GSH levels in all tissues and plasma compared with controls. In the plasma SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities were also reduced. All these effects were reversed by L-carnitine as well. The increase in MDA level and the concomitant decrease in GSH level of tissues and plasma and also suppression of the antioxidant enzyme activities in plasma demonstrate that oxidative mechanisms are involved in CRF-induced tissue damage. L-carnitine, possibly via its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties, ameliorates oxidative organ injury and CRF-induced dysfunction of the aorta and corpus cavernosum. These results suggest that L-carnitine supplementation may have some benefit in CRF patients.Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 06/2004; 43(5):698-705. · 2.38 Impact Factor