Monitoring Environmental Pollutants in the Vicinity of a Cement Plant: A Temporal Study
ABSTRACT From 2008 to 2009, we evaluated the environmental impact of a cement plant (Montcada i Reixac, Catalonia, Spain) that is located close to densely populated areas. The potential health risks for the population living in the neighborhood were also assessed. The levels of various heavy metals and the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were determined in soil, vegetation, and air samples collected at different directions and distances from the facility. Three 6-monthly consecutive campaigns were performed to establish temporal and seasonal trends. Multivariate statistical techniques, such as principal component analysis, were used. Human exposure to metals and PCDD/Fs, as well as the associated carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks, were also calculated. Environmental pollutant concentrations, especially those found in urban sites, were noted to be slightly higher than those recently reported around other cement plants in Catalonia. A seasonal pattern was observed, with higher values recorded during the colder sampling periods. Despite this, the carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks derived from human exposure to metals and PCDD/Fs were within the ranges considered acceptable by international regulatory organisms.
- SourceAvailable from: Chen-Wuing Liu
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- "Three major pathways are generally considered in human health risk assessment: ingestion, dermal contact, and respiration. This study focused on the ingestion and dermal contact pathways, and the following equations are applied in calculating the exposure through these two pathways (USEPA, 1989, 2004; Rovira et al., 2011; Iqbal et al., 2013): "
ABSTRACT: This study characterized the sediment quality of the severely contaminated Erjen River in Taiwan by using multivariate analysis methods-including factor analysis (FA), self-organizing maps (SOMs), and positive matrix factorization (PMF)-and health risk assessment. The SOMs classified the dataset with similar heavy-metal-contaminated sediment into five groups. FA extracted three major factors-traditional electroplating and metal-surface processing factor, nontraditional heavy-metal-industry factor, and natural geological factor-which accounted for 80.8% of the variance. The SOMs and FA revealed the heavy-metal-contaminated-sediment hotspots in the middle and upper reaches of the major tributary in the dry season. The hazardous index value for health risk via ingestion was 0.302. PMF further qualified the source apportionment, indicating that traditional electroplating and metal-surface-processing industries comprised 47% of the health risk posed by heavy-metal-contaminated sediment. Contaminants discharged from traditional electroplating and metal-surface-processing industries in the middle and upper reaches of the major tributary must be eliminated first to improve the sediment quality in Erjen River. The proposed assessment framework for heavy-metal-contaminated sediment can be applied to contaminated-sediment river sites in other regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 01/2015; 113C:469-476. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.12.036 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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- "PCA is a data compression technique that aims to explain most of the variance in the data, while transforming the set of correlated measured variables into a smaller set of new uncorrelated variables or principal components (PCs), attempting at the same time to preserve and emphasize the relevant relationships present in the original data (Boruvka et al., 2005). The main goal of this multivariate statistical technique is to extract useful information and provide an easier visualization of the relations among objects and variables determined in large or complex data sets (Rovira et al., 2011). The scatter plot of component scores on both principal components (PCs) showed that most breast milk samples were included in a main cluster with only a few outliers (Fig. 2). "
ABSTRACT: The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in breast milk from women living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Catalonia, Spain. The results were compared with the levels obtained in previous surveys carried out in the same area in 1998 (baseline study), 2002 and 2007. The current total concentrations of 2,3,7,8-chlorinated PCDD/Fs in breast milk ranged from 18 to 126pgg(-1)fat (1.1-12.3pg WHO2005-TEQPCDD/F), while the total levels of PCBs ranged from 27 to 405pgg(-1)fat(0.7-5.3pg WHO2005-TEQPCB). In turn, PBDE concentrations (sum of 15 congeners) ranged 0.3-5.1gg(-1)fat, with a mean value of 1.3ngg(-1)fat. A general decrease in the concentrations for PCDD/Fs, both planar and total PCBs, and PBDEs in breast milk was observed. The levels of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs in milk of women living in urban zones were higher than those corresponding to industrial zones (41%, 26%, and 8%, respectively). For PCDD/Fs and PCBs, the current decreases are in accordance with the reduction in the dietary intake of these pollutants that we have also observed in recent studies carried out in the same area of study.Chemosphere 08/2013; 93(8). DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.07.071 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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- "Because of their notable toxicity , bioaccumulation capacity and long environmental persistence, these pollutants have raised a notorious public concern (Tsatsakis and Tutudaki, 2004; Rovira et al., 2011c). Among other effects, heavy metals are able to induce oxidative damage in the cardiopulmonary system (Valavanidis et al., 2008), while PCDD/Fs play a role as potential endocrine disruptors (Clemons et al., 1998), being also considered as carcinogens (Rovira et al., 2011c). "
ABSTRACT: Inhalation is an important exposure pathway to airborne pollutants such as heavy metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and particulate matter. Chronic exposure to those chemicals, which form part of complex environmental mixtures, may mean important human health risks. In the present study, the suitability of different in vitro tests to evaluate the toxic effects of air PM(10) pollutants is investigated. In addition, it is also assessed how to distinguish the contribution of chemical pollutants to toxicity. Sixty-three air samples were collected in various areas of Catalonia (Spain), and the levels of ecotoxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated. Aqueous acidic extractions of quartz fiber filters, where PM(10) had been retained, were performed. The photo-luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri (Microtox®) bioassay was performed to assess ecotoxicity. Moreover, MTT and Comet Assays, both using human lung epithelial cells A549 as target cells, were applied to assess the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of air samples, respectively. The results show that Microtox® is an excellent screening test to perform a first evaluation of air quality, as it presented a significant correlation with chemical contaminants, contrasting with MTT Assay. Although none of the samples exhibited genotoxicity, a high correlation was found between this in vitro test and carcinogenic agents. Urban samples from traffic-impacted areas would be significantly more toxic. Finally, environmental temperature was identified as a key parameter, as higher values of ecotoxicity were found in winter.Science of The Total Environment 12/2012; 443C:791-797. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.11.022 · 4.10 Impact Factor