Body mass indices and outcome in patients with chronic heart failure.
ABSTRACT There is an inverse relation between body mass and mortality in large populations of patients with chronic heart failure with a broad range of disease severity. The best measure of body size to describe the relation is not clear.
Patients with chronic heart failure (n = 2271, age 71.9 ± 11.3 years; 74.6% male) due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction were followed for a median of 1785 days (inter-quartile range, 874-2311 days) in survivors. We measured body mass index (BMI: weight/height²), ponderal index (PI: weight/height³), and body surface area (BSA). In a subset of 1025 patients, we also calculated the 'Charles index' [weight/(waist² × height)] together with bioimpedance data. During follow-up, 912 patients died. Measures of body mass were strong univariable predictors of outcome, and BSA (χ² = 71.3) was the strongest predictor followed by height (χ² = 68.6), weight (χ² = 57.4), then BMI (χ² = 15.2). The larger the patient's size, the lower the risk of mortality. Body surface area was the single strongest predictor of outcome in a multivariable model including 14 variables. In the subset with bioimpedance data, basal metabolic rate, BSA, weight, BMI, percentage body fat, fat mass, PI, and fat-free mass were all univariable predictors of outcome.
Measures of body size are strongly related to outcome in patients with chronic heart failure. Body surface area is a stronger predictor of mortality than other measures of body habitus, irrespective of height correction. The greater the overall bulk of the body, the better the survival.
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ABSTRACT: Cardiomyopathy, the presence of cardiac dysfunction independent of ischemic heart disease and/or hypertension, is becoming a more prominent condition in our diabetic patient population. Unfortunately, we do not yet understand the mechanism(s) responsible for causing diabetic cardiomyopathy. With the recent explosion in the obesity and Type 2 diabetes epidemic, our understanding of dyslipidemia and the adverse effects of lipid surplus on cellular and organ function has grown considerably. Numerous studies now illustrate that excess lipid accumulation may exert direct toxic effects on cellular function, a term coined 'lipotoxicity'. As obesity and Type 2 diabetes are significant risk factors for cardiovascular disease, cardiac lipotoxicity may represent a significant component mediating the diabetic cardiomyopathy phenotype. Therefore, a more complete understanding of how cardiac lipotoxicity is regulated and how different lipid metabolites cause cellular dysfunction may lead to the discovery of novel targets to treat cardiomyopathy in our diabetic patient population.Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy 02/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Overweight has been shown in multiple studies to carry a survival benefit in heart failure (HF) patients. This finding is, of course, counterintuitive to the well-established role of obesity as a modifiable risk factor for incident cardiovascular disease. The debate on the relevance of this obesity paradox is on-going, and clinical, methodological and teleological aspects are discussed. Particularly, younger age and a seemingly favourable clinical status of obese patients are repeatedly discussed together with the lack of prospective data to question the validity of the observed survival advantage in obese HF patients. Recent risk score calculators, however, have included body weight as an inverse risk factor, i.e. higher body mass index is predicting better outcome. Emerging prospective interventional trials support the concept that in patients with established disease, intentional weight reduction may not necessarily translate into improved outcome. The clinically most relevant consequence from the emerging data is, of course, the practical recommendation on body weight management that we may give our (overweight) patients. While the terminology as a paradox is critically discussed, a more differentiated concept for weight management should be emphasized that distinguishes between healthy subjects and those with an established cardiovascular disease such as heart failure.Heart Failure Reviews 02/2014; · 4.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Children with end-stage cardiac failure are at risk of HA and PG. The effects of these factors on post-transplant outcome are not well defined. Using the PHTS database, albumin and growth data from pediatric heart transplant patients from 12/1999 to 12/2009 were analyzed for effect on mortality. Covariables were examined to determine whether HA and PG were risk factors for mortality at listing and transplant. HA patients had higher waitlist mortality (15.81% vs. 10.59%, p = 0.015) with an OR of 1.59 (95% CI 1.09-2.30). Survival was worse for patients with HA at listing and transplant (p ≤ 0.01 and p = 0.026). Infants and patients with congenital heart disease did worse if they were HA at time of transplant (p = 0.020 and p = 0.028). Growth was poor while waiting with PG as risk factor for mortality in multivariate analysis (p = 0.008). HA and PG are risk factors for mortality. Survival was worse in infants and patients with congenital heart disease. PG was a risk factor for mortality in multivariate analysis. These results suggest that an opportunity may exist to improve outcomes for these patients by employing strategies to mitigate these risk factors.Pediatric Transplantation 03/2014; · 1.50 Impact Factor