Study on Solid Surface Fluorescence Characteristic of Saline Soils around Lakes in Arid and Semiarid Regions
ABSTRACT Fluorescence spectroscopy relies on the fluorescence emitted by rigid conjugated systems and thus has been increasingly used to assess the soil organic matter (SOM) humification. This technique is widely applied to solution samples of humic substances, and so far no information exists about its applicability to solid-phase soil samples. Composite soil samples of different depths (0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm) were collected from four different halophyte communities along a saline-impact gradient, namely, Comm. Salicornia europaea (CSE), Comm. Suaeda glauca (CSG), Comm. Kalidium foliatum (CKF) and Comm. Sophora alopecuroides (CSA) located around Wuliangsuhai Lake. A humification index based on solid surface fluorescence spectroscopy (HIX(SSF)) was proposed, and compared with conventional humification indices I400/I360, I470/I360, I465/I399 and A4 /Al. There were close positive linear correlations between HIXass and 1400/1360, 145/I399 and A4/A1, but a poor positive linear correlation existed between the HIX(SSF) and I470/I360. The results indicated that HIX(SSF) can be taken as a tool to assess the soil humi fication. The HIX(SSF) of the CSE and CSG varied inappreciably within soil profiles and there was no trend with depth. However the HIX(SSF) varied appreciably in the CKF and CSA, and the HIX(SSF) of the bottom soil profile was higher than that of the other profiles. As a whole, the soil humification degree was low around Wuliangsuhai Lake, and the ecological environment was relatively fragile. The salinity showed a strong negative linear relationship with the I400/I360, I470/I360, I465/I399 and A4/A1, but a good negative linear relationship with the HIX(SSF). The results indicated that the degree of the SOM humification increased with the drop in the salinity. The HIX(SSF) can be an indicator not only of the degree of SOM humification, but also of the process of the salinisation.
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ABSTRACT: Assessment of particulate (>53-m) and mineral-associated (m) soil organic matter (SOM) fractions is a useful approach to understand the dynamic of organic matter in soils. This study aimed to compare the long-term (9-yr) effects of no-tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) on C and N stocks in the two above mentioned organic fractions in a Brazilian Acrisol. The degree of SOM humification, which has been associated with the concentration of semiquinone-type free radicals (`spin') determined by electron spin resonance (ESR), was also evaluated. Soil under no-tillage had 7.55 Mg ha–1 (25%) more C and 741 kg ha–1 (29%) more N than conventionally tilled soil in the 0–175-mm depth. Both particulate and mineral-associated SOM increased in the no-tilled soil. The increase of C and N stocks in the mineral-associated SOM accounted for 75% and 91% of the difference in total soil C and N stocks between NT and CT, respectively. Averaged across tillage systems, C and N stocks were respectively 4.6 and 16.8 times higher in the mineral-associated SOM than in particulate SOM. The higher C and N stocks were associated with greater recalcitrance of mineral-associated SOM to biological decomposition, resulting, probably, from its interaction with variable charge minerals. This is corroborated by a positive relationship between concentrations of C and iron oxides and kaolinite in the 53–20, 20–2 and m particle size classes, of the 0–25-mm soil layer. The degree of SOM humification, assessed by ESR, decreased in both the 53–20 and 20–2-m fractions under NT. However, it was unaffected by tillage in the m fraction, which normally presented the lowest `spin' concentration. Since quality as well as quantity of SOM improved in the no-tillage soil, adoption of this system is highly recommended for amelioration of degraded tropical and subtropical soils.Plant and Soil 12/2001; 238(1):133-140. DOI:10.1023/A:1014284329618 · 3.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In weathered tropical and subtropical soils organic matter is crucial for soil productivity and its quantity depends heavily on soil management systems. This study evaluated the effect of no-till cropping systems on organic matter content and quality in a sandy clay loam Acrisol soil (Paleudult in US taxonomy) from Southern Brazil. Ten cropping systems with varying additions of C and N were conducted for 12 years (from 1983 to 1994). The addition of crop residues increased total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in the soil at 0–17.5 cm depth, and this increase was directly related with C and N added or recycled by the systems. The crop residues added to the soil were associated with reduced semiquinone free radical concentration, detected by electron spin resonance (ESR), in the organo-mineral aggregates <53 μm and humic acid (HA) samples, in the soil at 0–2.5 cm depth. This showed that stable organic matter originating from crop residues was less humidified than the original soil organic matter. Results obtained from organo-mineral aggregates showed a higher amplitude (highest and lowest values were 5.47 and 2.09 × 1017 spins g−1 of TOC, respectively) of semiquinone free radical concentration than HA samples (highest and lowest values were 2.68 and 1.77 × 1017 spins g−1 of HA, respectively). These data showed that alterations due to tillage in soil organic matter characteristics, e.g., humification degree can be better identified through a combination of soil physical fractionation and spectroscopic analysis. Semiquinone content in the HA samples, detected by ESR, related significantly to aromaticity, as measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of 13C. Management systems including no-till and cropping systems with high C and N additions to the soil improved its quality in Southern Brazil.Soil and Tillage Research 01/2000; 53(2-53):95-104. DOI:10.1016/S0167-1987(99)00088-4 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A pot experiment was performed to compare the impact of organic manure on soil enzymatic activity, respiration rate and the growth of two barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their salt tolerance under a simulated salinized environment. A plastic pot with a hole (2 cm in diameter) in the center of bottom was filled with an anthropogenic (paddy) soil and placed in a porcelain container containing NaCl solution (3.0 g L−1) such that a secondary salinization process was simulated via upward capillary water movement along the soil profile. A treatment with neither organic manure nor simulated soil salinization was taken as a control (CK1). The organic manure was applied either inside or outside rhizobag made of nylon cloth (40 μm of pore size). The soil was treated with: 20 g kg−1 rice straw (RS), 20 g kg−1 pig manure (PM), or 10 g kg−1 rice straw plus 10 g kg−1 pig manure (RS+PM). No organic manure was added in an additional control treatment (CK2). The results indicated that the placement of organic manure both inside and outside rihzobags significantly increased the activity of urease, alkaline phosphatase and dehydrogenase, as well as respiration rate in both rhizosphere and bulk soils. Also, nutrient uptake by barley plants was enhanced in the treatments with organic manure amended either inside or outside rhizobags. The activity of these enzymes along with the respiration rate was higher in rhizosphere than in non-rhizosphere when organic manure was supplied inside rhizobags, while the opposite was found in the case of manure incorporated outside rhizobags. Among all the treatments, RS+PM treatment had most significant stimulating effects on enzymatic and microbial activity and shoot dry weight of barley, followed by PM and RS. Moreover, more significant stimulating effects on both enzyme activity and plant growth were achieved in the treatments with manure amended inside rhizobags than outside rhizobags. The results of the present study confirmed the view that incorporation of organic manure especially into soil–root zones is an effective low-input agro-technological approach to enhancing soil fertility and minimizing phytotoxicity induced by secondary salinization.Soil Biology and Biochemistry 06/2005; 37(6):1185-1195. DOI:10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.11.017 · 4.41 Impact Factor