Current treatment in acute and chronic cardio-renal syndrome.

Department of Experimental and Applied Medicine-Section of Cardiovascular Diseases, Spedali Civili Hospital of Brescia, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
Heart Failure Reviews (Impact Factor: 3.99). 12/2010; 16(6):583-94. DOI: 10.1007/s10741-010-9202-6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cardio-renal syndrome (CRS) is a renal dysfunction occurring in a large percentage of patients hospitalized with congestive heart failure (HF). Cardiac and renal dysfunctions often occur simultaneously because they share causes and pathogenetic mechanisms. Current therapies for HF are focused on improving myocardial function and hemodynamic balance, but may have potential consequences for worsening renal function. The lack of specific trials in this field highlights the need for further studies aimed to assess efficacy and safety, titration and appropriate dosages of drugs, according to the etiology and severity of both myocardial and renal dysfunction. Moreover, the most recent clinical trials evaluating new drugs on clinical and renal outcome in acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS) failed to demonstrate an improvement in renal function and perfusion. In this context, several questions regarding the priority of drugs, their recommended dosage and potential adverse effects on cardiac and renal outcome need to be addressed. Although clinical guidelines for managing both HF and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been drawn, until now agreed guidelines about patients with cardio-renal and reno-cardiac syndromes are lacking. Future treatment directions should take into consideration both kidney and heart function. Only this comprehensive approach might lead to an improvement in the management and outcomes of patients affected by CRS.

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    06/2012; 6(2). DOI:10.4081/itjm.2012.91
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Heart failure is frequently complicated by renal failure, and this association is a negative prognostic factor. These patients sometimes present oligo-/anuria and resistance to high-dose furosemide, a condition referred to as the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). Acute or chronic reductions in left ventricular function result in decreased blood flow, with reduction of renal perfusion and activation of several neurohormonal systems, which cause resistance to diuretic therapy. This condition often requires ultrafiltration, which is an effective, but invasive and expensive procedure. Infusions of hypertonic saline solution (HSS) and high-dose furosemide can be an effective alternative. Materials and methods From November 2009 through May 2010, our team treated 20 patients with CRS and resistance to iv boluses of high-dose furosemide. These patients were treated with small-volume (150-250 mL) infusions of HSS (NaCl 1.57 – 4.5%, depending on serum Na values) and high-dose furosemide twice a day. The aim of this treatment is to modify renal hemodynamics and the water-saline balance in the kidney by counteracting the extracellular fluid accumulation and eliminating symptoms of congestion. Results In 18 patients (90%), urine output was restored and renal function improved during the first hours of treatment. Clinical improvement was evident from the first day of therapy, and there were no adverse events. Two patients (10%) did not respond to the treatment: one (who had been in critical condition since admission) died; the other required regular sessions of ultrafiltration. Conclusions HSS combined with high-dose furosemide is a safe, effective, low-cost approach to the treatment of CRS that is resistant to diuretic therapy.
    Italian Journal of Medicine 06/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.itjm.2011.05.001
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    ABSTRACT: The hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is defined as a potentially reversible kidney failure in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. An association of HRS and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy has been reported recently, but there are no result studies about the use of positive inotropes as part of the acute phase treatment. We report the case of a patient diagnosed with HRS, with high levels of NT pro-BNP, but with normal ejection fraction of the left ventricle, which showed abnormalities in systolic function through speckle tracking in echocardiography, reversible after the infusion of dobutamine. The patient showed clinical and laboratory improvement of his renal function after the infusion of dobutamine. Clinical studies are needed on HRS therapeutic approach taking into account the myocardial dysfunction as a major contributing factor to renal dysfunction.
    01/2015; 2015:573513. DOI:10.1155/2015/573513