Current treatment in acute and chronic cardio-renal syndrome.
ABSTRACT Cardio-renal syndrome (CRS) is a renal dysfunction occurring in a large percentage of patients hospitalized with congestive heart failure (HF). Cardiac and renal dysfunctions often occur simultaneously because they share causes and pathogenetic mechanisms. Current therapies for HF are focused on improving myocardial function and hemodynamic balance, but may have potential consequences for worsening renal function. The lack of specific trials in this field highlights the need for further studies aimed to assess efficacy and safety, titration and appropriate dosages of drugs, according to the etiology and severity of both myocardial and renal dysfunction. Moreover, the most recent clinical trials evaluating new drugs on clinical and renal outcome in acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS) failed to demonstrate an improvement in renal function and perfusion. In this context, several questions regarding the priority of drugs, their recommended dosage and potential adverse effects on cardiac and renal outcome need to be addressed. Although clinical guidelines for managing both HF and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been drawn, until now agreed guidelines about patients with cardio-renal and reno-cardiac syndromes are lacking. Future treatment directions should take into consideration both kidney and heart function. Only this comprehensive approach might lead to an improvement in the management and outcomes of patients affected by CRS.