Does Marriage Inhibit Antisocial Behavior? An Examination of Selection vs Causation via a Longitudinal Twin Design

Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 48824, USA.
Archives of general psychiatry (Impact Factor: 13.75). 12/2010; 67(12):1309-15. DOI: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.159
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Previous studies have indicated that marriage is negatively associated with male antisocial behavior. Although often interpreted as a causal association, marriage is not a random event. As such, the association may stem from selection processes, whereby men less inclined toward antisocial behavior are more likely to marry.
To evaluate selection vs causation explanations of the association between marriage and desistence from antisocial behavior.
Co-twin control analyses in a prospective twin study provided an analogue of the idealized counterfactual model of causation. The co-twin control design uses the unmarried co-twin of a married twin to estimate what the married twin would have looked like had he remained unmarried. Discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins are particularly informative because they share a common genotype and rearing environment.
General community study.
Two hundred eighty-nine male-male twin pairs (65.1% MZ) from the Minnesota Twin Family Study underwent assessment at 17, 20, 24, and 29 years of age. None of the participants were married at 17 years of age, and 2.6% were married at 20 years of age. By 29 years of age, 58.8% of the participants were or had been married.
A tally of criterion C symptoms of DSM-III-R antisocial personality disorder, as assessed via structured clinical interview.
Mean differences in antisocial behavior across marital status at age 29 years were present even at 17 and 20 years of age, suggesting a selection process. However, the within-pair effect of marriage was significant for MZ twins, such that the married twin engaged in less antisocial behavior following marriage than his unmarried co-twin. Results were equivalent to those in dizygotic twins and persisted when controlling for prior antisocial behavior.
Results indicate an initial selection effect, whereby men with lower levels of antisocial behavior are more likely to marry. However, this tendency to refrain from antisocial behavior appears to be accentuated by the state of marriage.

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Available from: Mikhila N Wildey, Jan 29, 2014
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    • "The problem of statistical endogeneity is endemic to social science research, but it is our position that a prominent confounder variable—genetic influences—has largely gone overlooked. To briefly summarize our concern: if genetic influences underlie the etiology of antisocial behavior (see the meta-analyses discussed above Burt, 2009a,b; Ferguson, 2010; Mason & Frick, 1994; Miles & Carey, 1997; Rhee & Waldman, 2002) and the etiology of common criminological variables such as self-control (Boisvert et al., 2012; Nikolas & Burt, 2010), peer group formation (Cleveland et al., 2005), and broader social "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Many criminological scholars explore the social causes of crime while giving little consideration to the possibility that genetic factors underlie the observed associations. Indeed, the standard social science method (SSSM) assumes genetic influences do not confound the association between X and Y. Yet, a nascent stream of evidence has questioned the validity of this approach by revealing many criminological variables are at least partially affected by genetic influences. As a result, a substantial proportion of the literature may be misspecified due to uncontrolled genetic factors. No effort has been made to directly estimate the extent to which genetic confounding has biased the associations presented in criminological studies. Methods The present study seeks to address this issue by drawing on simulated datasets. Results/Conclusions Results suggest genetic confounding may account for a negligible portion of the relationship between X and Y when their correlation (ryx) is larger than the correlation between genetic factors and Y (i.e., ryx > ryg). Genetic confounding appears to be much more problematic when the correlation between X and Y is in the moderate-to-small range (e.g., ryx = .20) and the genetic effect is in the moderate-to-large range (e.g., ryg ≥ .30).
    Journal of Criminal Justice 12/2014; 42(6):471–482. DOI:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2014.08.003 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    • "Married people therefore live longer because they enjoyed good health even before marriage (Goldman, 1993a; Mastekaasa, 1992; Manfredini, et al. 2010). Besides physical and mental health, which directly affect marriage selection, other factors have an indirect effect, such as physical attractiveness, income, level of education, health-related habits and emotional stability (Burt et al., 2010; Dixson et al. 2007; Hemstr€ om, 1996; Kiernan, 1988; South, 1991). Research on attractiveness indicates that body height is one of the most important characteristics determining overall physical attractiveness and differentiating chances in mating (Hensley, 1994; Shepperd and Strathman, 1989). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Married people live longer and are healthier than unmarried people. This can be explained in terms of marriage protection and marriage selection. The aim of the present study was to examine the direct effect of marriage selection on health status.Methods Data were collected from the archives of the Lower Silesian Medical Center (DOLMED) in Wrocław, Poland. The sample consisted of 2,265 adult (never married or currently married) men. Subjects were assigned to categories for selected variables, including age, level of education, military category upon conscription, height, hearing acuity, and visual acuity. Military category, objective data gathered upon military conscription at age 18, was used to assess initial health status. To identify any relationships between marital status and health status, generalized linear models with binomially distributed dependent variable were used.ResultsThe never-married subjects were more likely to have been assigned to lower military categories, which indicates that their health status at age 18 was inferior to those conscripts who would later marry. Hearing acuity and visual acuity were generally worse in never-married subjects than in married subjects. Never-married subjects were also more likely to be short and less likely to be tall.Conclusions The results provide evidence for direct health-related marriage selection in men between 25 and 60 years of age. Poor health status reduces the likelihood of marriage. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Human Biology 07/2014; 26(6). DOI:10.1002/ajhb.22588 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    • "Not surprisingly, family effects have long been empirically examined in the criminological literature (Loeber & Stouthamer-Loeber, 1986), with the most recent attention devoted to the effects of marriage on patterns of desistance – largely on the heels of the resurrection and re-analysis of the classic Glueck study of delinquents by Sampson and Laub. These authors (1993) suggest that marriage can act as a 'turning point' in the criminal career and this finding has been replicated in several studies (Barnes & Beaver, 2012; Beaver et al., 2008; Bersani et al., 2009; Blokland & Nieuwbeerta, 2005; Burt et al., 2010; King, Massoglia, & MacMillan, 2007; Piquero et al., 2002; Sampson, Laub, & Wimer, 2006; Theobald & Farrington, 2009; though see Lyngstad & Skardhamar, 2013). However, one aspect of the family that has received somewhat less empirical attention has been the effect of having a child on continued or curtailed offending. "
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    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 02/2014; 48(1):3-23. DOI:10.1177/0004865814537840 · 0.61 Impact Factor
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