Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis.

Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic in Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA.
Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international: HBPD INT (Impact Factor: 1.17). 12/2010; 9(6):570-8.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Three types of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) have been identified, but their etiologies include unknown mechanisms.
A PubMed search on "progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis" and "PFIC" was performed on the topic, and the relevant articles were reviewed.
The etiologies of the three PFIC types still include unknown mechanisms. Especially in PFIC type 1, enterohepatic circulation of bile acid should be considered. Ursodeoxycholic acid, partial external biliary diversion and liver transplantation have been used for the treatment of PFIC patients according to disease course.
Since the etiologies and disease mechanisms of PFIC are still unclear, detailed studies are urgently required. Strategies for more advanced therapies are also needed. These developments in the future are indispensable, especially for PFIC type 1 patients.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a group of rare disorders which are caused by defect in bile secretion and present with intrahepatic cholestasis, usually in infancy and childhood. These are autosomal recessive in inheritance. The estimated incidence is about 1 per 50,000 to 1 per 100,000 births, although exact prevalence is not known. These diseases affect both the genders equally and have been reported from all geographical areas. Based on clinical presentation, laboratory findings, liver histology and genetic defect, these are broadly divided into three types—PFIC type 1, PFIC type 2 and PFIC type 3. The defect is in ATP8B1 gene encoding the FIC1 protein, ABCB 11 gene encoding BSEP protein and ABCB4 gene encoding MDR3 protein in PFIC1, 2 and 3 respectively. The basic defect is impaired bile salt secretion in PFIC1/2 whereas in PFIC3, it is reduced biliary phospholipid secretion. The main clinical presentation is in the form of cholestatic jaundice and pruritus. Serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is normal in patients with PFIC1/2 while it is raised in patients with PFIC3. Treatment includes nutritional support (adequate calories, supplementation of fat soluble vitamins and medium chain triglycerides) and use of medications to relieve pruritus as initial therapy followed by biliary diversion procedures in selected patients. Ultimately liver transplantation is needed in most patients as they develop progressive liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. Due to the high risk of developing liver tumors in PFIC2 patients, monitoring is recommended from infancy. Mutation targeted pharmacotherapy, gene therapy and hepatocyte transplantation are being explored as future therapeutic options.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology. 01/2013;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis refers to a heterogenous group of autosomal recessive disorders in which children develop severe intrahepatic cholestasis progressing to biliary cirrhosis and chronic liver failure, usually during the first decade of life. The clinical features include jaundice, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, growth retardation and severe pruritus. The laboratory tests demonstrate elevated bilirubin, bile acids and liver function enzymes. The only curative treatment of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis is liver transplantation.This article presents the medical and dental history along with a comprehensive dental management and prognosis of a 6 years old male patient with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type I and liver cirrhosis 5 years post living related liver transplant in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The patient demonstrated improved oral hygiene performance during the course of treatment, and continued to demonstrate a low caries rate up to 7 months following treatment. Based upon the apparent success of the preventive programme, the patient was judged to have a very good prognosis.
    King Saud University Journal of Dental Sciences. 01/2013; 4(1):37–45.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intrahepatic cholestasis represents a heterogeneous group of disorders that begin during childhood, most commonly manifesting as neonatal cholestasis, and lead to ongoing liver dysfunction in children and adults. For children, inherited pathogenic factors of cholestasis have gained increasing attention owing to the rapid development of molecular biology technology. However, these methods have their advantages and disadvantages in terms of simplicity, sensitivity, specificity, time required and expense. In the present study, an effective, sensitive and economical method is recommended, termed high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis and direct sequencing, based on general polymerase chain reaction, to detect mutations in disease‑causing genes. As one type of inherited intrahepatic cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (PFIC2) is caused by pathogenic mutations in the ABCB11 gene, HRM was used to detect mutations in the ABCB11 gene in the present study, and the diagnosis for PFIC2 was made by comprehensive analysis of genetic findings and clinical features. Furthermore, the characteristics of mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ABCB11 gene were elucidated. A total of 14 types of mutations/polymorphisms were identified in 20 patients from mainland China, including six missense mutations (p.Y337H, p.Y472C, p.R696W, p.Q931P, p.D1131V and p.H1198R), one nonsense mutation (p.R928X) and seven SNPs (p.D36D/rs3815675, p.F90F/rs4148777, p.Y269Y/rs2287616, p.I416I/rs183390670, p.V444A/rs2287622, p.A865V/rs118109635 and p.A1028A/rs497692). Five mutations were novel. The majority of the mutations were different from those detected in other population groups. A total of 4/20 patients (1/5) were diagnosed to be PFIC2 by combining genetic findings with the clinical features. Polymorphisms V444A and A1028A, with an allele frequency of 74.5 and 67.2%, respectively, were highly prevalent in the mainland Chinese subjects. No differences were found between the patients with cholestasis and the control subjects. Efficient genetic screening facilitates the clinical diagnosis of genetic disorders. The present study demonstrated that HRM analysis was efficient and effective in detecting mutations and expanded the known spectrum of ABCB11 gene mutations.
    Molecular Medicine Reports 06/2014; · 1.48 Impact Factor

Tomohide Hori