Article

Heat illness among high school athletes - United States, 2005-2009

Health Studies Branch, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.
Journal of safety research (Impact Factor: 1.34). 12/2010; 41(6):471-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsr.2010.09.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Heat illness is a leading cause of death and disability among U.S. high school athletes.
To examine the incidence and characteristics of heat illness among high school athletes, CDC analyzed data from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study for the period 2005-2009.
During 2005-2009, the 100 schools sampled reported a total of 118 heat illnesses among high school athletes resulting in ≥1day of time lost from athletic activity, a rate of 1.6 per 100,000 athlete-exposures, and an average of 29.5 time-loss heat illnesses per school year. The average corresponds to a weighted average annual estimate of 9,237 illnesses nationwide. The highest rate of time-loss heat illness was among football players, 4.5 per 100,000 athlete-exposures, a rate 10 times higher than the average rate (0.4) for the eight other sports. Time-loss heat illnesses occurred most frequently during August (66.3%) and while practicing or playing football (70.7%). No deaths were reported.
Consistent with guidelines from the National Athletic Trainers' Association, to reduce the risk for heat illness, high school athletic programs should implement heat-acclimatization guidelines (e.g., set limits on summer practice duration and intensity). All athletes, coaches, athletic trainers, and parents/guardians should be aware of the risk factors for heat illness, follow recommended strategies, and be prepared to respond quickly to symptoms of illness. Coaches also should continue to stress to their athletes the importance of maintaining proper hydration before, during, and after sports activities. IMPACT OF INDUSTRY: By implementing preventive recommendations and quickly recognizing and responding to heat illness, coaches, athletic trainers, and the sporting community can prevent future deaths.

1 Follower
 · 
158 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: médecine et armées, 2012, 40, 3, 241-248 241 Transferts de chaleur et coup de chaleur d'exercice. Applications à l'hyperthermie d'exercice et au refroidissement L'hyperthermie d'exercice est par définition l'un des éléments constitutifs du coup de chaleur d'exercice. Elle résulte de la conjonction de facteurs intrinsèques, tels que le niveau d'adaptation à la chaleur et l'état de fatigue, et extrinsèques : l'intensité et la durée de l'effort, les conditions météorologiques et les facteurs vestimentaires. Les facteurs extrinsèques sont discutés sous l'angle des modifications aux transferts de chaleur qu'ils imposent entre le corps et son environnement. La compréhension des mécanismes de ces transferts de chaleur permet aussi d'optimiser les moyens de refroidissement à mettre en oeuvre sur le terrain, dans les moyens d'évacuation et à l'hôpital, lors de la prise en charge du coup de chaleur d'exercice. Mot-clé : Bilan thermique. Résumé Exercise hyperthermia is one of the constitutive elements of exertional heatstroke. It results from the additive effects of intrinsic factors such as heat adaptation or fatigue, and extrinsic ones: the duration and the intensity of exercises meteorological conditions and clothes. How extrinsic factors do modify heat transfers between body and environment are discussed. A good understanding of the mechanisms of heat transfer is also useful to optimize the efficiency of cooling methods which have to be operated in the field, in ground transportation vehicles and in the hospital for EHS patients' emergency care.
    Medécine et armées 01/2012; 40(3):241-248.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Exertional heat illness (EHI) affects military personnel, athletes and occupational groups such as agricultural workers, despite knowledge of preventive measures. Aims To evaluate EHI diagnoses during US Army basic training and its associations with fitness and body fat on entering military service. Methods From February 2005 to September 2006, US Army recruits at six different military entrance stations took a pre-accession fitness test, including a 5-min step test scored as pass or fail. Subsequent EHI incidence and incidence rate ratios were analysed with reference to subjects' fitness (step test performance) and whether they met (weight qualified [WQ]) or exceeded body fat (EBF) standards. Results Among the 8621 WQ and 834 EBF male subjects, there were 67 incidents of EHI within 180 days of entering military service. Among WQ subjects, step test failure was significantly associated with EHI (odds ratio [OR] 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13, 3.53). For those passing the step test, the risk of EHI was significantly higher in EBF than in WQ subjects (OR 3.98, 95% CI 2.17, 7.29). Expected ORs for the joint effects of step test failure and EBF classification under additive and multiplicative models were 4.98 and 7.96, respectively. There were too few women to evaluate their data in detail. Conclusions This study demonstrated that fitness and body fat are independently associated with incident EHI, and the effect of both was substantially higher. Those with low fitness levels and/or obesity should be evaluated further before engaging in intense physical activity, especially in warmer months.
    Occupational Medicine 07/2014; 64(6). DOI:10.1093/occmed/kqu062 · 1.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Exertional heat illnesses affect thousands of athletes each year across the United States (U.S.). Heat safety guidelines such as those developed by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) are widely used to direct activities based on environmental conditions but rely on a uniform set of heat safety categories. Due to geographic variations in heat exposure and acclimatization, however, lower heat safety thresholds may be needed in areas with cooler climates. Our study addresses this shortcoming by developing regional guidelines for athletic activity that use relative thresholds of a commonly used heat metric -- the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). We employed a unique WBGT climatology for the contiguous U.S. to determine locally extreme WBGTs, defined as the 90th percentile warm season daily maximum value, for 217 stations. Three heat safety regions were identified based on local extremes: Category 3 (WBGTs ≥ 32.3 °C), Category 2 (30.1-32.2 °C), and Category 1 (≤30 °C). Geographically, Category 3 encompasses much of the southeastern quadrant of the U.S. along with portions of the Southwest, and the Central Valley of California; Category 2 areas extend in an arc from the interior Northwest through Nevada and portions of the Midwest, Ohio Valley, and Northeast; and Category 1 locations include the Pacific Coast, New England, and the northern tier of the country. Associated regional activity guidelines based on those developed by the ACSM and the Georgia High School Association (GHSA) were developed for each heat safety region.
    Applied Geography 01/2015; 56:55-60. DOI:10.1016/j.apgeog.2014.10.014 · 3.08 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
27 Downloads
Available from
Aug 29, 2014